Indiana University Bloomington Early Childhood Social and Emotional Development Essay

After reading Chapter 9, Social and Emotional Developmentand the Social StudiesCHAPYER 9 BELOW© Radius / SuperStockAfter reading this chapter, you should be able to: From the FieldCritical Thinking QuestionYou know that in addition to meeting children’s physical needs and approaches to learning standards, a very important part of teaching young children is promoting and encouraging healthy social and emotional development. Some of the families of your class group are experiencing great stress—at least one family in your class is struggling with unemployment and at risk of losing its home, another has a military parent deployed to a combat zone, and a third is providing in-home care for a grandparent who recently had a stroke. You wonder how these circumstances might affect the children’s emotional stability and behavior and how you can help all the children to become confident in their ability to deal with challenges and solve problems they experience at school.You want the children to develop a strong sense of self and relate well to their teachers and peers. You also want to incorporate a developmentally appropriate approach to encourage them to regulate their own behavior and create a caring and vibrant classroom community. In this chapter, we explore important concepts and effective strategies for social and emotional development and a developmentally appropriate approach to social studies curriculum and standards.Previous section Next section As described in Chapter 4, the social and emotional needs of young children vary by age, personality, and circumstances. Social psychologists, led by Erik Erikson (1950), consider it critically important that young children develop secure attachments and trusting relationships, a positive self-image and confidence, independence regulated by awareness of and sensitivity to others’ feelings and expectations, and the ability to make and keep friends and function as a member of a community. These ideas provide the framework for early learning standards that focus on social and emotional development and are consistent with the 1997 National Education Goals Panel recommendations. Social and emotional development is an important element of early childhood curriculum for a number of reasons related to the development of resilience, self-regulation, and early childhood as a window of opportunity.Children who acquire the skills emphasized in the early learning standards for social-emotional development are far more likely to be resilient, able to cope with stress and overcome adversity. (McClelland, Cameron, Wanless, & Murray, 2007; Pawlina & Stanford, 2011; Pizzolongo & Hunter, 2011). The kinds of significant challenges children face today include violence, abuse or neglect, natural disasters, economic distress within their families, and separation from loved ones. They also experience the typical developmental dilemmas that emerge as they begin to form friendships, experience rejection, and bond with unfamiliar adults.Resilient children display a sense of agency, a feeling of control over their own decisions, and confidence in their ability to solve problems. They also do better in school over the long term. Their mindset tends towards optimism in face of a dilemma or challenge (Pawlina & Stanford, 2011, p. 31). People without resilience, in contrast, feel powerless to improve their circumstances or solve problems (Pizzolongo & Hunter, 2011).Consider the family caring for a disabled grandparent and the range of reactions the child might display—the resilient child might see his grandpa’s illness as an opportunity to spend more time with him, reading books, sitting with him in the room and helping his parents with care needs; the child with a lack of resilience might instead pick up on a sense of parental distress, feel anxious, and act out for attention as he observes his parents spending time caring for grandpa when he feels he needs their attention himself. Children with special needs face additional challenges and may particularly need to develop skills associated with resiliency (McClelland, Cameron, Wanless, & Murray, 2007).Self-regulation is the ability to make decisions to control impulses in varying situations. An increasing body of research confirms strong links between early and long-term academic success and a child’s ability to regulate her own behavior, work independently, control impulses, and follow directions (McClelland, Cameron, Wanless, & Murray, 2007; Papalia & Feldman, 2011). These are learning skills that emerge with the development of executive functioning, as stressed in the Approaches to Learning standards (Chapter 7). While multiple factors including temperament, brain development, and home environment contribute to shaping these abilities, teachers certainly play an important role in helping children learn how to thrive in educational environments (Jewkes & Morrison, 2007).Social and academic competence is linked to classrooms with warm and responsive teachers and positive teacher-child interactions. Self-regulation that is internally motivated, rather than a response to expected rewards, also seems to develop best in classrooms where children have many opportunities to make and be accountable for their own decisions (Pianta, LaParo, Payne, Cox, & Bradley, 2002).© iStockphoto / ThinkstockBrain research points to the importance of acquiring these learning-related skills during the early childhood period (Masten & Gewirtz, 2006). The field of early childhood education has long emphasized the need for social and emotional competence and teachers who understand how children construct their social selves in a similar hands-on fashion as in other areas of development; studies today confirm more than ever that this continues to be the case (Saracho & Spodek, 2007).In the next two sections, we explore a social environment that promotes healthy development of these qualities and how teachers facilitate development of self-concept, social competence, and self-regulation.Providing an environment that promotes healthy social and emotional development requires considering the social ecology of the classroom (van Hoorn, Nourot, Scales, & Alward, 2011), or how interaction patterns vary according to setting and type of activity. Think of social ecology from the perspective of Bronfenbrenner, as a network of individual personalities as well as overlapping peer groups, characterized by different ways children join, create, or are assigned by others—by popularity, interest, friendship, ability, and so on. Understanding group identification as a natural human activity is important, since groups can have an impact on the social development of individuals (Kindermann & Gest, 2009). For instance, a teacher creates an artificial social ecology by assigning children to permanent or fixed reading groups using a single characteristic such as ability (homogeneous grouping). Subsequently, the children may recognize these distinctions and label their peers in these groups as “smart” or “dumb” and behave toward one another with this label in mind. Classroom ecology evolves more naturally when teachers vary the assignment of children to working groups (heterogeneous grouping) and monitor how children create and self-select their own membership in groups. Teachers learn a great deal about individual strengths and needs from observing the ways children form groups and interact with one another.In the class discussed above, those same children whom the teacher labeled by ability might categorize themselves by interest, such as “artists,” or “block builders.” Or they might develop perceptions about ability but express them differently, such as “fast runners” or “good storytellers.” Of course it is also possible that some group assignments would not be positive, such as “troublemakers” or “mean kids.” Teachers use this information to help individual children with social skills and to guide groups toward inclusive and positive interactions.Social acceptance, rejection, confidence levels, and self-image are all affected by social ecology and can also be very distinctive, fluid, or idiosyncratic from one class to the next. Teachers are most likely to establish a positive social atmosphere when they:Helping each child feel comfortable and safe at school or care is best achieved with a gradual approach. Preenrollment visits and individual interactions with the teacher build trust. Small-group play before whole-group activities helps children get to know each other. Acknowledging, modeling, and helping children express their feelings from the start allows them to feel emotionally safe and secure (Hendrick & Weissman, 2007).© Corbis / SuperStocka positive social climate is helping families establish separation routines that allow the child to transition easily into school or care. Building community is an ongoing process that also starts before children enter the program, with home visits as well as written and verbal communications. It continues every day as teachers welcome children, establish routines that involve them in caring for the classroom and each other, and plan and conduct activities that help them learn about the concept of community and investigate the community in which they live and go to school or care.Teachers establish a positive verbal environment when they use language to demonstrate respect for children and their abilities by showing genuine interest in their activities and asking a variety of questions. Perhaps a teacher might say, “Wow, I see that you have brought in some very interesting rocks to share with us—can you tell us about where you found them and what you know about them?” Teachers model courtesy and help children understand expectations with language such as, “It would be so helpful if you could . . . ” Or “Thank you so much for putting your trucks away—you knew right where they belong.”Teachers should also encourage children to use their words to describe the choices they make, with opportunities to make decisions that are meaningful and important (Meese & Soderman, 2010). For example, a teacher might say, “I see you have put the ‘work in progress’ sign on your block structure—you must have some big ideas about what you are building—can you tell me about what you want to do next?” These kinds of verbal interactions help children feel valued and special and create conditions that affirm positive perceptions of themselves and others.The positive verbal environment can be used as a context for facilitating play interactions as teachers establish defined activity areas and pathways to allow for different types of social exchange. For example, by choosing and arranging furniture and equipment that encourage face-to-face encounters, teachers increase the chance that children will engage with one another (van Hoorn, Nourot, Scales, & Alward, 2007). A comfortable area with pillows or soft furniture and homelike lighting for reading and looking at books encourages conversation and personal interactions. A playhouse in the outdoor space invites children to congregate and play in small groups.Direct teaching and modeling takes many forms, from having a conversation with an individual child about how to communicate anger with words to guiding three children through settling a dispute or constructing a set of “friendship guidelines” with an entire group or class.© iStockphoto / ThinkstockIn many ways, a teacher or caregiver’s behavior and interaction patterns are as important to children’s social and emotional development as any materials or activities in the classroom (Copple & Bredekamp, 2009; Gallagher & Mayer, 2006; Willis & Schiller, 2011). In general, regardless of the age of children, teachers support social and emotional or affective development by building high-quality relationships with them. The specific characteristics of teacher-child interactions will vary over time and by age as teachers get to know their children, become familiar with them as individuals, establish mutual trust and respect, and commit to a long-term relationship with each child and family (Gallagher & Mayer, 2006).Teacher behaviors that promote high-quality relationships include:Previous section Next section Self-concept begins to develop very early, as babies first realize that their limbs are part of their bodies; it grows as toddlers, for example, begin to recognize their images in a mirror (Papalia & Feldman, 2011). This is a multidimensional concept that also affects how a child develops relationships with others.Children acquire personal identity as they learn to recognize and feel comfortable with their self-images and bodies. They begin to understand their social identity as comprising the kinds of things that characterize them as individuals within larger groups, such as ethnicity, culture, gender, and social standing (Derman-Sparks & Edwards, 2010; Kowalski, 2007). They develop an attitude of confidence and an internalized sense of self-worth as they experience repeated success at completing tasks and solving problems. Young children also begin to develop empathy—the ability to imagine or understand how another person might feel in different situations. All these things are needed for a child to build healthy social relationships with peers and others.Young children tend to describe themselves in concrete terms, according to what they look like, what they can do, or what they like or don’t like. They can’t typically provide a description with multiple, integrated or qualitative characteristics until middle childhood (Hendrick & Weissman, 2007). Therefore it makes sense to do activities with them that focus on these concrete attributes so they can begin to develop a vocabulary for describing themselves in terms of things that are real to them, such as, “I have brown eyes” or “I like to dance.” Table 9.1 offers suggestions for steps teachers can take to foster a sense of self.Acquiring social identity includes learning about gender, ethnicity, and ability issues. Experts on multicultural and antibias education advise teachers to focus on values, interaction patterns, and equitable teaching practices, rather than curriculum activities that highlight superficial features like flags or potentially stereotypical images of different cultures, such as a sombrero or feathered headdress (Derman-Sparks & Edwards, 2010; Hendrick & Weissman, 2007). In other words, children are taught to respond to each other courteously as individuals. This helps to create a classroom culture that values respect, caring, and the matter-of-fact recognition of similarities and differences. It also provides the grounding children need as concrete learners to understand their places in the context of others.Strategies that promote an accurate and unbiased environment include the following:Activities that can be used in the classroom to contribute to development of social identity include the following:© iStockphoto / ThinkstockAs children’s cognitive awareness and ability to use words to describe “who I am” develops, they also begin to make comparative judgments about themselves in relation to others. Children tend to have perceptions about their self-worth long before they begin to talk about it, which typically occurs toward the end of the early childhood period (around age 7 or 8) (Papalia & Feldman, 2011). Younger children also seldom make subtle distinctions, usually categorizing themselves at one or the other end of a spectrum, such as good/bad. Further, their ability to be realistic about strengths and weaknesses can be affected by adults who lavish unwarranted praise or who are continually critical.Essential to healthy self-esteem and confidence that motivates children to persist through difficulties is “unconditionality” (Papalia & Feldman, 2011). In other words, if a child’s self-esteem is solely contingent on success, she can develop a sense of helplessness if she is not successful on the first try. Conversely, if a child’s self-esteem and confidence are unconditional attributes, a failed attempt will only lead him to try repeatedly until he succeeds. Over time, children who lack confidence expect to fail and become more reluctant to take risks, while an overconfident child may not learn how to react to failure (Willis & Schiller, 2011).The goal for teachers of young children is to help them develop realistic confidence in several ways, as Table 9.2 illustrates.As defined earlier, empathy is an abstract concept that develops over a long time. Very young children generally do not experience or express empathy. Infants, toddlers, and young preschoolers tend to be highly egocentric, acknowledging only their own needs and assuming that everyone experiences the world from a single perspective—theirs (Piaget & Inhelder, 1969)! It would not be effective, for example, to address an 18-month-old child who bit another child with, “That was mean! How do you think you made him feel?”The teacher or caregiver could, however use such an episode as an opportunity to begin building empathy. The teacher might say, “Oh, you hurt your friend,” and ask the biter to help comfort the other child, perhaps by holding his hand or helping to hold ice on the bite. Parents, teachers, and caregivers can encourage children—beginning around age 3—to consider how others are feeling, keeping in mind that it takes many such experiences for empathy and compassion to grow.As with many other dimensions of social learning, it is essential to use language to help children recognize what others are feeling or thinking. You might, for example, say “Remember this morning when you couldn’t find the block you were looking for and you got upset? I see that Molly is getting frustrated because she can’t find what she is looking for—can you help her?” Here you are letting both children know that emotions and feelings are universal and that one can demonstrate sympathy and concern.Caregivers can support the development of empathy by providing children with opportunities to care for and recognize emotional signals and body language in others. Children should also be encouraged to consider the fact that different people have different perspectives about the same situation. Simple activities such as looking at, describing, or drawing an interesting seashell from multiple angles, or asking children what they see when they lie on their backs and look up at the sky, provide concrete reference points for discussing point of view.Additional caretaking activities that help children to develop empathy include:© Fotosearch / SuperStockwhich helps children learn to respond to others in distress. To help children learn to recognize and acknowledge others’ feelings, try activities such as: More From the FieldCritical Thinking QuestionWith young children, developing healthy social relationships depends a great deal on a general feeling of safety and confidence (Willis & Schiller, 2011) as well as on established interactions with family members and caretakers, and making/maintaining friendships in the neighborhood and at school or child care (Howes & Lee, 2007). One of the most heartbreaking things a teacher can witness is a child who is a social outcast, unable or unwilling to make friends, clearly miserable and unhappy most of the time. Infants as young as 2 months begin to distinguish peers from others and by 2 years of age have begun to display preferences in play partners (Kowalski, 2007; Ladd, Herald, & Andrews, 2006).Play-based group settings that provide children with adequate space, time to play, open-ended and creative activities support positive and complex interactions between and among children more than those with highly directed programs and limited access to materials (Howes & Lee, 2007; Ladd, Herald, & Andrews, 2006). Important as well is evidence that close and trusting relationships between children and their teachers provide children with emotional resources that help them manage stress and aggressive tendencies (Gallagher & Mayer, 2006; Gallagher, Dadisman, Farmer, Huss, & Hutchins, 2007; Howes & Lee, 2007; Ladd & Burgess, 2001). Two challenges for teachers to help children develop healthy social relationships are promoting peer-group acceptance and facilitating and creating the conditions for children to form friendships with other individuals.© Visions of America / SuperStockThrough observation and interactions with children, early educators learn to distinguish between general acceptance of a child by his peers and true friendships between individual children characterized by mutual affection, companionship, and longevity (Kostelnik, Soderman, & Whiren, 2007). The factors that attract children to their peers are very similar to those that attract adults—shared interests, personality, appearance, and behavior (Howes & Lee, 2007; Kowalski, 2007).General peer acceptance is important, since much of a child’s day at school or care involves interactions with others in play, small- or large-group activities with adults, snacks and mealtimes, story time, or rest. Some of these activities are more “high profile” than others; for example, if a child states loudly, “Ewww, I don’t want Timmy to sit with me at lunch,” it is likely other children will hear and the probability of Timmy being rejected by others increases (Ladd, Herald, & Andrews, 2006). Further, once a child has established a negative reputation, that reputation becomes more and more difficult to overcome, and it becomes harder for the child to form individual friendships as well (Buhs & Ladd, 2001; Gallagher et al., 2007; Persson, 2005).Because play is typically a fluid activity, with children moving about and highly engaged in what they are doing, a child can “practice” negotiating relationships with peers by inviting others to play or asking them to join a play in progress. Studies have shown that children are most successful in their attempts to join group play when teachers encourage them to:Young children communicate and cooperate more with their friends than with other children (Howes & Lee, 2007; Kowalski, 2007). They also have more conflicts but usually find ways to resolve them (Kostelnik, Soderman, & Whiren, 2007). Over time, from spending a lot of time together and sharing experiences (mutual socialization), they may even take on similar characteristics or preferences, such as hairstyles, clothing, or musical tastes (Howes & Lee, 2007; Kids Matter, 2009).Young children are more likely to make friends when they are able to use their words effectively to initiate conversations, express feelings, provide ideas for play, and compliment other children. They are also more successful when their behavior is generally helpful and cooperative, demonstrating the ability to share and take turns, refusing to join in others’ negative behavior, playing fair, following rules, and being good losers (Bovey & Strain, 2012; Kids Matter, 2009).Engaging young children with activities that model and teach friendship integrates all the elements of self-concept, as Figure 9.1 shows.Many types of activities can be used to promote friendship, pro-social skills, and a sense of community and belonging. Such activities might include those listed in Table 9.3.Previous section Next section Self-regulation links all the domains of development and is considered one of the most reliable predictors of academic and social success in later life (McClelland, Cameron, Wanless, & Murray, 2007; Papalia & Feldman, 2011). It is important during early childhood because children need to learn how to delay gratification; respond and adapt to rules; and handle frustration, challenges, and disappointments in socially acceptable ways. We want them to do so not only because of the sense of satisfaction they feel when they know they are making good decisions but also because being able to control themselves sets them up as more likely to achieve success as adults.Adults promote self-regulation when, before stepping in to help, they wait to see if the child can solve a dilemma alone. That is, they wait not so long that the child becomes frustrated and angry or at risk for getting hurt but to communicate confidence that at some point they expect that the child will be able to solve problems independently.The primary goal of classroom or group-care behavior management is not for the teacher or adult to manage the children but for the children to learn how to regulate themselves. Behavior is the visible representation of the child’s effort at any given moment to integrate what he or she wants or feels with what he or she chooses to do.Many factors motivate children’s behavior and the decisions they make, and a “one size fits all” approach to classroom management is neither universally effective nor considered developmentally appropriate (Copple & Bredekamp, 2009; Kohn, 1999). A sound approach to guidance includes the following:When you see a child “fly off the handle,” know that the child decided to do so because it seemed the only option, whether or not the child is aware of having come to that conclusion after weighing alternatives. Brain research has revealed that when children experience prolonged or significant stress, a chemical reaction interferes with the “fight or flight” response, resulting in reactive aggression as a protective measure against a perceived threat (Bruno, 2011; Gartrell, 2011). Therefore children experiencing high levels of stress at home or in school may act out for reasons much more complex than a simple mischievous desire to break a rule or get something they want.Automatically punishing reactive aggression only serves to make the situation worse, as punishment compounds the stress that caused the behavior in the first place. Sometimes it can be difficult to figure out what is going on when a situation erupts or a child consistently misbehaves, but it is important to do so in order to help the child make connections between feelings and actions so that he or she can begin to make better decisions.© Hemera / ThinkstockSelf-regulation begins in infancy, as babies gradually learn that their needs will be met by responsive adults (Papalia & Feldman, 2011). For example, the newborn cries in response to all stressors (being wet or soiled, hungry, thirsty, and so on). Over time, baby learns to wait before crying as he begins to trust that when hungry, he will soon be fed, when wet, he will be changed, and so forth. Caregivers help infants and toddlers with self-regulation by providing a context and routines that are predictable and anticipating their needs when possible so they don’t have to handle too many challenges at once. When an adult remains calm while the child is angry or crying and uses words to describe what the child might be feeling, the child learns that his feelings are acceptable.By interacting with babies and toddlers in routines—such as diapering, bathing, and feeding—and communicating what they can do to participate, adults help them to establish self-efficacy. For instance, while changing a 6-month old, the caregiver may say, “Can you lift up your bottom to help me get the dirty diaper out so we can put the new one on?” More From the FieldCritical Thinking QuestionSome infant-toddler curricula include the use of signing with preverbal infants and toddlers to begin giving them tools with which to communicate what they need or want as well as “announcing” what they might choose to do (Vallotton, 2008). For example, a 12-month-old might learn to shake his head, signifying “no,” as he approaches a hot stove, to indicate that he has learned not to touch it. Similarly, he might learn to stroke his forearm to indicate that he knows he needs to use a gentle touch.As children acquire language and become increasingly able to control their movements, early educators help preschool and primary children develop self-control by emphasizing that how they feel or what they think is not the same thing as what they choose to do. Thus adults need to first help them acknowledge or identify emotions and, second, learn how to express themselves and solve problems with words or other appropriate actions.Suppressing or denying emotions teaches children that certain feelings are not permitted, or bad, and damages the self-esteem a child needs to make difficult decisions with confidence. Children are also sometimes frightened by the intensity of their feelings. Therefore three of the most helpful skills you can develop as a teacher are close observation, active listening, and modeling how to express feelings with words.Close observation, or monitoring how children seem to be feeling and looking for signs of distress, gives you the opportunity to invite a child to open up and talk before losing control. Especially with infants and toddlers but also with older children, you focus on interpreting their body language, as sometimes children don’t know an appropriate word or the ones they do know seem inadequate to convey their feelings. As you get to know the children, you begin to recognize signals and can guess at describing how they are feeling.Particular emotions have recognizable features, such as a red face or clenched fists (anger), diverted eyes or a crumpled body (guilt), or tears (sadness) (Bruno, 2011). Picking up on these cues, you might say to a child, “Your body seems all stiff and tight; I’m wondering if you are feeling mad about something.”© iStockphoto / ThinkstockActive listening means giving a child your undivided attention and accepting what is said without judgment. You reserve your approval or disapproval and focus on how the child chooses to act on his or her feelings. Active listening conveys and models empathy—that you care about how children feel and acknowledge that their problems are real and important (Hendrick & Weissman, 2007). Further, if you paraphrase, or repeat back in your own words what you heard a child say, you help teach the subtle difference between lashing out with words (to hurt another in an attempt to make oneself feel better) and the more constructive process of reporting to another person how you feel as the first step in solving a problem.For example, LaToya, a 4-year-old playing in the housekeeping center, is pretending to make pancakes and goes to the refrigerator where play food is stored to get some milk. Mario is already there and takes out the very item LaToya wants. She turns to Mario, stomps her foot, and says, “No, no, stupid, that’s mine!” and then proceeds to try to take the milk away from him. The teacher steps in, saying, “LaToya, your words tell me that you are upset because Mario has something you wanted to use” (paraphrasing). The teacher might follow with, “but you hurt his feelings with the words you used; can you try again to tell him what you need and see if he can help you with that?”Teachers can model how to talk about feelings as a natural part of conversation and to let children know that experiencing a range of feelings is normal. For instance, you might describe how pleased you are that you will be going out to dinner with friends for your birthday, that you are sad at having to say goodbye to your son going off to college, or that you felt frustrated because you were in a hurry but had to wait in a long line at the grocery store.Finally, you can provide children with alternatives for expressing their feelings with words or actions that are harmless, such as:© iStockphoto / ThinkstockAs children begin to identify, acknowledge, and express their feelings, they also need practice to learn how to solve problems and resolve conflicts. Key to this process is not only actively facilitating problem resolution when conflicts are happening but also having intentional conversations with children about decision making when they are not.First, discussion provides an opportunity to think objectively and dispassionately about the kinds of problems children have or might experience. Second, children develop a shared sense of responsibility and ownership over the process. Third, identifying typical problems and brainstorming solutions provide them with resources—a “toolbox” of strategies they can draw from to try to solve problems themselves. Teachers need to keep in mind that there can be more than one appropriate response for a given situation and that children sometimes generate potential solutions that the teacher might not think of.A teacher might encourage children to generate a list of scenarios and possibly useful strategies or solutions, writing them down on a chart posted in the classroom for future reference. For instance, to resolve conflicts over toys or other objects,

Assignment Rubric: Written Assignment 1 (15%): How Does the Media Portray Nutrition Science? Oftentimes the public consumes nutrition and health information not from original research but from media r Nursing Assignment Help

Assignment Rubric: Written Assignment 1 (15%): How Does the Media Portray Nutrition Science?Oftentimes the public consumes nutrition and health information not from original research but from media reportsof research. For this assignment, you will write a review article evaluating the credibility of a popular press portrayalof a published nutrition research paper. You will be provided the media article and the research paper during thefirst week of class. The overarching goal of this essay is to make an argument about the implications of the media’srepresentation of scientific research, using the media article and the scientific paper. This review should be between2,000 and 2,500 words. Your review should have an introduction, a main body, and a conclusion. The introductionshould contain a thesis statement or your main argument about how well the media article portrayed the researcharticle. Within the body of your review, you should include the following:a. How well does the media portray the study design? What, if any, are key misinterpretations orinformation gaps in the media article portrayal of the study design?b. What are the key findings in the scientific paper? How well does the media portray the keyfindings? Were key findings omitted? What are the implications of these omission ormisrepresentations?c. Does the title of the media article portray the findings of the article? If not, suggest a new titlethat is more accurated. Are key limitations of the scientific article acknowledged in the media article? Can you think of anyother limitations not mentioned in either article that should be included?e. Does the media article provide adequate background information on the topic? If not, whatadditional context would be helpful to readers?f. What are the implications of potential misrepresentation of scientific studies? Be specific aboutthe scientific paper’s coverage in the media, if you think the media misrepresented aspects of thestudy. Also, comment more broadly on how misrepresentation of scientific research, especially when itcomes to food and health, could be problematic.Students may quote passages from the texts to strengthen their arguments; however, these should be used tohighlight and exemplify arguments rather that comprise the entirety of the paper.
Guidelines: Assignments should be in Times New Roman 12-point font, double-spaced with 1-inch margins. Whennaming your assignment file, be sure to include your last name and the first initial of your first name and theassignment number (e.g., BeckM_Assignment2). References should be formatted according to the AmericanPsychology Association (APA) style guide and should be submitted on a new page in the document, instead ofdirectly below the assignment text. Using a reference manager such as RefWorks or Mendeley is highlyrecommended for formatting references and can help save time. Be sure to spell-check your paper. Put the totalword count after the title of your assignment. Submit as a Word document or PDF file to the assignment link in 2CH. Papers that exceed the maximum word limit will receive a 2-point deductionfor each 100 additional words. Paper submitted late will receive a deduction of 1 point for every 24 hours late. Word count 2000-2500 words.Papers later than 72 hours will be given a 0
Study Design
Author Viewpoints of Key Findings of Article
Summary Paragraph and Conclusion
Research Article:
Media Article:

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The media plays a critical role in shaping public perception and understanding of various topics, including nutrition science. Often, the general population relies on media reports of research rather than accessing original scientific studies. This assignment aims to evaluate the credibility of a popular press portrayal of a published nutrition research paper. By analyzing both the media article and the scientific paper, students are tasked with making an argument about the implications of the media’s representation of scientific research. This review article should critically assess the media’s portrayal of the study design, key findings, title accuracy, limitations, background information, and potential misrepresentation of scientific studies. The goal is to provide a comprehensive analysis of the media’s impact on the public’s perception of nutrition science.
Within the introduction, students should clearly state their main argument or thesis about how well the media article portrayed the research article. This will set the tone for the rest of the review and guide the reader’s understanding of the author’s viewpoint.
Study Design:
In the body of the review, students should assess how well the media portrayed the study design. They should identify any key misinterpretations or information gaps present in the media article’s portrayal of the study design. Students should analyze whether the media accurately explained the experimental design, sample size, control groups, and any other methodological aspects that are relevant to the research study.
Author Viewpoints of Key Findings of Article:
Next, students should evaluate how well the media portrayed the key findings of the scientific paper. They should highlight whether any key findings were completely omitted in the media article’s portrayal and discuss the implications of such omissions or misrepresentations. It is important to critically analyze whether the media accurately conveyed the significance and implications of the study’s findings.
Students should offer a thorough analysis of the media’s portrayal of the research article. This may involve comparing and contrasting the media’s presentation with the scientific paper. It is essential for students to provide evidence and examples from both sources to support their analysis.
In this section, students should determine whether the title of the media article accurately portrays the findings of the research article. If not, they should suggest a new title that is more accurate. Additionally, students should assess whether the media article acknowledges any key limitations of the scientific article. If there are limitations that were not mentioned in either article, students should identify and discuss them.
Students should evaluate whether the media article provides adequate background information on the topic. If not, they should identify the specific areas where additional context would be helpful to the readers. The goal is to assess whether the media article sets the stage appropriately for understanding the research study.
In this section, students should discuss the implications of potential misrepresentation of scientific studies. They should be specific about the scientific paper’s coverage in the media and identify instances where the media may have misrepresented aspects of the study. It is important to comment more broadly on how misrepresentation of scientific research, especially in the context of food and health, can be problematic.
Summary Paragraph and Conclusion:
The review should conclude with a summary paragraph that summarizes the main arguments made throughout the paper. The conclusion should reiterate the main thesis statement and provide a clear and concise closing statement about the implications of media representation of scientific research in the field of nutrition science.
It is important for students to support their arguments with evidence and examples from both the media article and the scientific paper. Additionally, proper formatting according to APA style, correct spelling, and adherence to word count guidelines are necessary for a successful submission.

The primary deliverable for this course is an 2500-3000 (+/- 10%) word paper on your chosen health policy/health equity topic. This assignment consists of two parts: Part 1: Policy Brief Your policy b Nursing Assignment Help

The primary deliverable for this course is an 2500-3000 (+/- 10%) word paper on your chosen healthpolicy/health equity topic. This assignment consists of two parts:Part 1: Policy BriefYour policy brief (2000-2500 words) will include:1. Title Page (Title, honor pledge, word counts of: the executive summary, brief, and equity analysis.The citations list doesn’t count in your word count)2. Executive Summary (does not factor into total paper length or % below; max 200 words; mustinclude a concise summary of the most pertinent facts about your issue, a brief overview of thepolicy proposals, and a final recommendation)3. Introduction/ Background (about 10% of paper length)Introduce the topic (This policy brief examines…). Place the policy problem in BRIEF historical and/orcontemporary context and explain why it is policy relevant.4. Identification of Policy Problem (about 20% of paper length)Write a clear statement of policy problem to be addressed in the brief and supported by anyempirical data that might quantify the magnitude of this policy problem. This section shouldincorporate a brief discussion of who the key stakeholders are with respect to the problem.PUBH 748Rev. 2021-04-21 135. Discussion and Analysis of the Key Policy Options (about 40% of paper length)Explore and analyze two policy options. Please include evidence-based analysis of advantages anddisadvantages of available policy options, including how each option would affect keystakeholders.6. Recommendations and Conclusions (about 20% of paper length)Using quality, substance, and logic, write final recommendation and offer conclusion. Therecommendation should be an analysis of why the option you select is better than the other andshould articulate what factors you considered in making that recommendation.7. List of ReferencesYou should use at least five appropriate sources; ensure all citations are in APA format and have live,clickable links.Part II: AddendumIn the remaining 500-1000 words, describe the following:1) Which public health values you prioritized in developing a solution to your problem2) What policy trade-offs, if any, you found difficult to make and why?3) With respect to the policy option you recommenda. how does your policy solution advance social justice?b. what ongoing equity concerns would you have, if any, even after the implementation of yourproposed policy?
Health Topic: Black Maternal/Infant Mortality in Harris County, Texas

Expert Solution Preview
The chosen health policy/health equity topic for this paper is Black Maternal/Infant Mortality in Harris County, Texas. This policy brief aims to address the critical issue of the disproportionately high maternal and infant mortality rates among Black individuals in Harris County. The paper will provide a comprehensive analysis of the problem, explore and evaluate two policy options, offer a final recommendation, and discuss the public health values prioritized in developing a solution. Additionally, the paper will address the policy trade-offs encountered and examine how the recommended policy solution advances social justice while considering ongoing equity concerns.
Answer to Part 1: Policy Brief:
The policy brief for the Black Maternal/Infant Mortality in Harris County, Texas will consist of the following sections:
1. Title Page:
The title page will include the title of the policy brief, an honor pledge, and word counts for the executive summary, brief, and equity analysis.
2. Executive Summary:
The executive summary will provide a concise summary of the most relevant facts about the issue, an overview of the policy proposals, and a final recommendation. It should not exceed 200 words and will not factor into the total paper length or percentage.
3. Introduction/Background:
The introduction section will constitute approximately 10% of the paper length. It will introduce the topic by stating, “This policy brief examines the issue of Black Maternal/Infant Mortality in Harris County, Texas.” It will provide a brief historical and/or contemporary context to explain the policy’s relevance.
4. Identification of Policy Problem:
The identification of the policy problem will make up around 20% of the paper length. It will present a clear statement of the policy problem and include empirical data, if available, to quantify the magnitude of this problem. This section will also discuss the key stakeholders associated with the problem.
5. Discussion and Analysis of the Key Policy Options:
Approximately 40% of the paper length will be dedicated to exploring and analyzing two policy options. This section will provide evidence-based analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of each policy option, along with an assessment of their impact on key stakeholders.
6. Recommendations and Conclusions:
This section will comprise around 20% of the paper length. It will present the final recommendation and offer a conclusion. The recommendation will explain why the selected policy option is superior to the other and detail the factors considered in making that recommendation.
7. List of References:
A list of at least five appropriate sources will be provided in APA format with live, clickable links. The reference list does not count towards the word limit.
Answer to Part 2: Addendum:
The addendum, consisting of 500-1000 words, will address the following:
1) Public Health Values:
Describe the public health values prioritized during the development of a solution to the identified problem. Explain how these values influenced the chosen policy option and its potential impact on improving maternal and infant health outcomes.
2) Policy Trade-offs:
Discuss any policy trade-offs encountered during the policy development process. Reflect on the difficulties faced in making these trade-offs and provide reasons for the selected choices.
3) Ongoing Equity Concerns:
With respect to the recommended policy option, discuss how it advances social justice. Analyze any lingering equity concerns that may persist even after the implementation of the proposed policy. Consider the potential impact on different demographic groups and strategies to address any disparities.
This policy brief and addendum on Black Maternal/Infant Mortality in Harris County, Texas aim to provide a comprehensive analysis of the issue, policy options, and recommendations. The paper also addresses public health values, policy trade-offs, and ongoing equity concerns. By examining the problem in-depth and proposing evidence-based solutions, it is hoped that this policy brief will contribute to reducing the disproportionate maternal and infant mortality rates among Black individuals in Harris County.

Read description (group couseling) week 4

Due: Wednesday July 19, 2023 
11:00pm USA pacific time
* No word minimum
*Answer all questions
* Number and or label the answer corresponding to the question
*Be through
*No plagiarism
Course: School Group Counseling and Counseling Theories
Read Instructions:
In preparation for this assignment review the first program from the DVD provided with Groups in Action: Evolution of a Group. Note Since you can’t watch the video Read the information below to help answer the two questions. This Reading is  a brief discription of what took place in the DVD you can read the information below:

Casey’s work takes a different turn when she expresses her sadness about having to keep her being gay a secret from her mother. Casey proceeds, yet is obviously frightened. Jerry suggests a role play involving Casey picking a person in the group to be her symbolic mother. We observe considerable hesitation on Casey’s part. Marianne doesn’t want Casey to feel pressured to move ahead with the role play and asks, “Is this your agenda or Jerry’s?” She lets it be known that she is scared, yet she wants to continue. Casey agrees with Marianne that it would be more meaningful to role-play with her mother in her native language (Vietnamese). We continue to find that when people role-play with significant others in their primary language, the outcome of the therapeutic engagement is often more productive. It is not necessary that those in the room understand the content of what is being conveyed. What is important is that this therapeutic dialogue has meaning to the client. Those who observe the work are typically affected emotionally even though they do not understand what is being said.
Casey, who picks Marianne as her symbolic mother, first reveals that she is gay. We follow Casey’s lead and she eventually says, “I keep thinking what my mother would say back to me.” Marianne asks Casey to reverse roles, “becoming her mother,” and express what she imagines her mother would tell her about this disclosure. After this exchange, Casey makes a comment about what a “good mother” would say. Again, taking the cue from Casey, Marianne suggests that Casey become the “good mother” and tell Marianne (who assumes the role of Casey) what she knows that Casey needs to hear.
In reality, Casey may never tell her mother about her sexual orientation, nor would we as coleaders ever push her to do so. What she tells her mother, if anything, must be her choice. Certainly, we would not tell Casey to go away from the group and say everything she expressed symbolically in the therapeutic situation. Instead, if she opens a dialogue with her mother, she needs to decide what she most wants to say to her, and what the price might be if she does. Even if Casey does not actually approach her mother, her therapeutic enactment was both cathartic and healing. Ideally, Casey would like to have the “good mother” she deserves, yet at this time, she made a start by symbolically saying to herself what she would so much like to hear from her mother. Casey’s mother may never be able to agree with Casey’s decisions of how she wants to live her life, yet Casey can come to an affirmation of herself as a person. A very important outcome of Casey’s work was the realization that her catastrophic expectations (negative judgments from the members) were not based in reality. Marianne plants a seed in Casey’s mind that maybe her mother, like the group, may not be as condemning of her as she fears. The stakes for Casey are high, and what to say to her mother will present some difficulties for her. Another result of her work was her decision to be a bit more trusting with select people about who she is.
Although the video contains a relatively large segment of Casey’s therapy, the actual session lasted more than an hour. As can be seen, Casey’s emotional work proves to be a catalyst for most of the other members. We, as leaders, were also emotionally touched, and generally we do not hesitate to disclose this. Just because we become emotional does not imply that we lose our objectivity and our ability to facilitate the members’ interactions.14
Assume that after Casey disclosed that she was gay one of the members said, “Casey, I need to let you know that I have a hard time hearing this, because I’m not comfortable with homosexuality.” How would you intervene?
Step-by-step solution from the video ( Only consider if needed to help with questions below)
Show all steps
Step 1/3
Casey and Marianne decided mutually that they should perform the role play with the Casy’s mother in their native language i.e. Vietnamese. This is because it was assumed that such performance would prove to be more meaningful.
Step 2/3
The outcome of the therapeutic engagement is expected to be more productive. The important factor to be emphasized is that the members playing role should be comfortable and attached emotionally to each other.
Step 3/3
It is not necessary that other members present in the particular place are able to understand the content of the role played by the members. The important is that the therapeutic dialogue being conveyed has meaning to the client.
Here’s the TWO questions 
Don’t copy word for word from the reading
Below Prepare a substantive response to the following:

How might Casey’s sharing of her concerns for her mother’s reaction to her being gay impact the other members of the group?
What are your thoughts on the facilitator’s suggestions of role playing with Casey and facilitating role play?

HCM 630 Impact of HCAHPS on Patient Satisfaction Paper Nursing Assignment Help

Your healthcare facility’s HCAHPS survey score for physician communication has had a drop in the top box score for the last two quarters.
The CEO of the 80-bed hospital has asked you to write a brief paper that offers three specific evidence-based strategies to improve the score and provides a rationale for each of the selected strategies. Your comparison must include the following critical elements:

Three evidence-based strategies to improve the score by the next quarter.
A rationale for each of the three evidence-based strategies identified.
Explanation of how the selected strategies will be evaluated.
Explanation of how selected strategies will be incorporated into the internal structure of the healthcare environment.
A plan for enlisting the cooperation of the medical staff.

In this assignment, you will have the opportunity to engage in a real-world process completed by a healthcare manager that occurs frequently in healthcare organizations. The Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (HCAHPS) survey assesses the patient’s healthcare experience and, because of this, receives a good deal of attention from healthcare leadership and staff. In this scenario, you are faced with low provider scores in the area of physician communication. Your assignment is to develop evidence-based strategies to address the issue and explain how these strategies will be implemented in the healthcare organization. 
Prompt: Your healthcare facility’s HCAHPS survey score for physician communication has had a drop in the top box score for the last two quarters. The chief executive officer of the 80-bed hospital has asked you to write a brief paper that offers three specific evidence-based strategies to improve the score and provides a rationale for each of the selected strategies. 
Your comparison must include the following critical elements: 

?  Three evidence-based strategies to improve the score by the next quarter. 
?  A rationale for each of the three evidence-based strategies identified. 
?  Explanation of how the selected strategies will be evaluated. 
?  Explanation of how the selected strategies will be incorporated into the internal structure of the healthcare environment. 
?  A plan for enlisting the cooperation of the medical staff.  

Expert Solution Preview
The drop in the top box score for physician communication in the Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (HCAHPS) survey is a concerning issue that requires immediate attention. In this paper, three evidence-based strategies will be proposed to improve the score by the next quarter. A rationale for each strategy will be provided, along with an explanation of how these strategies will be evaluated and incorporated into the internal structure of the healthcare environment. Additionally, a plan for enlisting the cooperation of the medical staff will be outlined.
Three evidence-based strategies to improve the HCAHPS survey score for physician communication by the next quarter are:
1. Implement Communication Skills Training for Physicians:
Rationale: Providing communication skills training for physicians is crucial as effective communication plays a vital role in patient-centered care. By enhancing physicians’ communication skills, they will be better equipped to engage with patients, listen to their concerns, and address their queries with empathy and clarity. This training will contribute to improved patient satisfaction and comprehension, ultimately leading to higher HCAHPS scores.
2. Enhance Interdisciplinary Collaboration:
Rationale: Collaborative teamwork among healthcare professionals is pivotal in achieving optimal patient outcomes. By fostering interdisciplinary collaboration, physicians can work closely with nurses, social workers, and other healthcare team members to streamline communication channels. This will result in improved coordination of care, reduced medical errors, and increased patient satisfaction. The implementation of interdisciplinary rounds and shared decision-making processes can facilitate this collaboration.
3. Implement Technology Solutions to Enhance Communication:
Rationale: Integrating technology solutions can significantly improve communication between physicians and patients. Implementation of secure messaging systems or telehealth platforms can facilitate efficient communication, allowing patients to ask questions, receive timely updates, and share concerns with their physicians remotely. Enhancing communication through technology can lead to increased patient engagement and satisfaction, ultimately improving HCAHPS scores.
Explanation of how the selected strategies will be evaluated:
To evaluate the effectiveness of these strategies, the following methods can be employed:
1. Patient Surveys: Conduct regular patient surveys specific to physician communication to assess the impact of the implemented strategies. Analyzing changes in patient satisfaction scores and feedback can provide valuable insights into the effectiveness of the interventions.
2. Staff Feedback: Seek feedback from physicians and other healthcare professionals regarding the perceived impact of the strategies on their communication skills and interdisciplinary collaboration. This feedback can provide crucial information on areas that need improvement and highlight successful practices.
3. Review of HCAHPS Scores: Continuously monitor the HCAHPS scores, specifically focusing on the physician communication domain. Regularly reviewing the scores will help in tracking the progress and identifying any fluctuations that may indicate the effectiveness of the implemented strategies.
Explanation of how the selected strategies will be incorporated into the internal structure of the healthcare environment:
The selected strategies will be incorporated into the internal structure of the healthcare environment through the following steps:
1. Training Programs: Establish communication skills training programs for physicians that can be integrated into their professional development curriculum. These programs can be conducted on a regular basis, ensuring continuous improvement in communication skills.
2. Interdisciplinary Meetings and Protocols: Implement regular interdisciplinary meetings and develop protocols to facilitate collaboration among healthcare professionals. This can include setting up standardized communication channels and processes to ensure effective communication and information sharing.
3. Technology Integration: Collaborate with the hospital’s IT department to identify and implement suitable technology solutions for enhancing communication. This may involve integrating secure messaging systems, telehealth platforms, or patient portals into the existing healthcare technology infrastructure.
A plan for enlisting the cooperation of the medical staff:
To enlist the cooperation of the medical staff, the following steps can be taken:
1. Educate and Raise Awareness: Conduct educational sessions or workshops that highlight the importance of effective physician communication in improving patient outcomes and satisfaction. Emphasize how the selected strategies will benefit both patients and physicians.
2. Provide Resources and Support: Offer readily available resources, such as training materials, guidelines, and faculty support, to assist physicians in enhancing their communication skills and participating in interdisciplinary collaboration.
3. Recognize and Celebrate Success: Acknowledge and appreciate physicians who demonstrate exceptional communication skills and actively engage in interdisciplinary teamwork. Establish recognition programs or incentives to motivate others to actively participate and improve their communication practices.
By implementing these steps, healthcare organizations can work towards improving physician communication, leading to enhanced patient satisfaction and improved HCAHPS scores.

week 2 assignment 1 Informed Consent Nursing Assignment Help

Informed Consent
The Belmont Report (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 1979) specifically describ es the ethical principles and guidelines for research involving human subjects, which came about due to the abuse of human subjects in biomedical experiments during World War II. A significant part of these guidelines relates to ensuring that the people participating in research fully understand the risks and benefits of being part of the study. We define the process of informing study participants of those risks and benefits as “informed consent”. Today, all research involving human subjects must involve informed consent. For this assignment, you will imagine that you are conducting a research study and will develop an informed consent form for it. To begin, read through the following scenario for a potential experiment. Then, using this week’s readings as a guide, draft a formal consent form that each participant will sign prior to agreeing to their participation in the research study.
Imagine that you are the lead researcher at a pharmaceuticals laboratory. You have just discovered a new pill that has the potential to cure Type 1 diabetes in human beings. A five-year randomized controlled study using chimpanzees found that diabetes was cured in the animals who took a daily dose of 500mg of your new drug, DIA123. Specifically, the research found that:
After two years of taking 500mg of DIA123, diabetes was no longer an issue among 78% of the chimps, and they no longer needed insulin injections.
The dosage was decreased to 250mg for year three, and the diabetes never returned.
DIA123 was eliminated in years four and five, and the diabetes never returned.
No additional exercise or dietary restrictions aided in the study. Therefore, the analysis strongly supported the hypothesis that DIA123 was the primary cause of the elimination of diabetes.
While the diabetes issue was eliminated, the research discovered a few side effects:
2% of the chimps suffered from moderate to severe diarrhea, which started within a month of taking the pills. This led to the possibility of dehydration, so careful monitoring of liquids was necessary.
15% of the chimps suffered from excessive heart palpitations during the three years taking DIA123. Due to the length of the study, the long-term impacts of these heart palpitations are unknown.
18% of the chimps suffered from a loss of libido, which did not dissipate after discontinuing DIA123 in years four and five.

25% of the chimps suffered from mild depression while taking DIA123 during years one through three. The depression dissipated for approximately half of the chimps after discontinuing DIA123 in years four and five, but continued for the other half.
Because of the public health implications of such a drug, the Centers for Disease Control and Food and Drug Administration approved a new five-year study with the use of male and female human subjects ages 18 to 55. An experiment will be done with humans that is identical to the one conducted with the chimpanzees. The participants will not receive any remuneration for their participation, which is fully voluntary.
Your job is to create the informed consent form for this study. Use one of the sample templates in the resource materials to help guide you. Make sure you address all of the necessary questions that are outlined in the Ethics and Informed Consent (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. (University of Connecticut, n.d.) document.
The Informed Consent Form

Must be one to two pages in length, formatted appropriately as an informed consent form.
Must include a separate title page with the following:

Title of paper
Student’s name
Course name and number
Instructor’s name

Date submitted

Expert Solution Preview
Introduction: Informed consent is an ethical requirement in research involving human subjects. It ensures that participants are fully aware of the risks and benefits of their participation before agreeing to be a part of the study. This assignment requires the development of an informed consent form for a hypothetical research study. The scenario involves a pharmaceutical laboratory conducting a five-year randomized controlled study on a new drug for treating Type 1 diabetes. The consent form should address all necessary questions outlined in the Ethics and Informed Consent guidelines.
Informed Consent Form
Title of Study: Study on the Efficacy and Side Effects of DIA123 in Treating Type 1 Diabetes
Principal Investigator: [Insert Name]
Study Location: [Insert Study Location]
1. Purpose of the Study:
The purpose of this research study is to investigate the effectiveness and side effects of DIA123, a potential treatment for Type 1 diabetes, in human subjects. The study aims to replicate the findings observed in a previous study on chimpanzees, which showed promising outcomes in diabetes elimination.
2. Procedures and Duration of the Study:
Participants will be required to take a daily dose of 500mg of DIA123 for the first two years of the study. The dosage will be reduced to 250mg for the third year, and no medication will be administered in the fourth and fifth years. The study will have a total duration of five years, with periodic evaluations and assessments throughout the study period.
3. Potential Risks and Side Effects:
Participants should be aware of the potential risks and side effects associated with taking DIA123. These include:
– Moderate to severe diarrhea, which may lead to dehydration. Participants will be required to monitor their liquid intake carefully.
– Excessive heart palpitations, although the long-term impacts of these palpitations are currently unknown.
– Loss of libido, which may persist even after discontinuing the medication in years four and five.
– Mild depression experienced by some participants during the first three years of the study. While the depression may dissipate for some participants, it may continue for others.
4. Potential Benefits:
Based on the previous study with chimpanzees, the potential benefits of participating in this study include the elimination of Type 1 diabetes and the cessation of insulin injections.
5. Voluntary Participation and Withdrawal:
Participation in this study is entirely voluntary, and participants have the right to withdraw their consent at any time without penalty or loss of benefits.
6. Confidentiality:
All participant information will be kept strictly confidential. No identifiable information will be shared publicly or with any third party without explicit consent, except as required by law.
7. Contact Information:
If participants have any questions or concerns about the study, they may contact the Principal Investigator at [Insert Contact Information].
I have read and understood the information provided in this consent form, and I voluntarily agree to participate in this research study. I understand that I may withdraw my consent at any time without consequences.
Participant Signature: _______________________ Date: _______________
Printed Name: _________________________________________________
For Researcher’s Use Only:
Participant ID: ________________

Kendriya Vidyalaya Current and Emerging Technologies Discussion

Discussion Forum 2Topic: We all had the unfortunate experience of seeing how computers can, at times, make life’s journey abit more difficult. This is especially true in knowledge centric workplaces. Describe an example of a very poorly implemented database that you’ve encountered (or read about) that illustrates the potential for really messing things up. Include, in your description, an analysis of what might have caused the problems and potential solutions to them. Be sure to provide supporting evidence, with citations from the literature. As with the first discussion topic, it is not enough for you to simply create a own posting. You must read the postings of the other members of the class and comment on each of them. Please see Discussion Forum of the class syllabus for additional details on content.Reply 1:-1) According to Martinez (2017), organizations heavily use database systems in the management of their data and information. A good database will make processes of data sharing and access to information across all departments easier and efficient. This in return helps improve how services and processes are being handled within the organization. However, there are incidents when databases can be quite a headache within an organization and this due to the issues that arise due to poor implementation. According to there are so many causes of poor database implementation within an organization. Most of these issues are directly linked with poor design choices of the databases as well as errors that may occur in the processes of developing or designing a database. Some of the errors that could lead to poor database implementation include lack of naming standards or the lack of documentation.One of the common database issues that is encountered within organization is the problem of poor naming conventions. According to Martinez (2017), poor naming conventions is a common mistake that could be easily made more especially when working on an already existing database. This is because one needs to first understand all the information and by what names is the information stored in the tables and columns. This is a task that could be complicated when one starts to relate the tables and columns for more large databases. The names could be messy and create confusion in the whole database, making the database unreadable. To provide solutions to such an issue, programmers or developers of the databases should make use of the existing database naming guidelines that can be found on the internet to reduce the chance of such errors or problems being encountered.Reply 2:A defectively executed database can be dangerous amid work. Right off the bat, it is essential to comprehend what poor people database is. An ineffectively planned database is subject to cause the accompanying issues: connected information can be spread over various compartments or records; the information can be conflicting; the database can be unessentially intricate making it difficult to comprehend, data can be in consecutive making it difficult to get it. This sort of complexities can be exceptionally dangerous particularly in learning driven databases (Kanuka and Adane, 2018). Such issues emerge because of the accompanying reasons: undermining the information reason, excess, insufficient naming practices, poor ordering, essential composite keys, no legitimate usage of DBE machine, couple of limitations or poor referral honesty, deficient normalizations, and so on.Whenever seen from IT’s perspective, the database seems unclear. The database is comprised of codes separated into two areas related to IT. The models for testing the examining consistency in IT associations are not met by the two areas of code. The database seems in reverse for such associations and isn’t even sufficiently able to embrace an adequate evaluating process. from the earliest starting point, most of the organizations engaged with evaluating battle looking for an IT verification prospect for the database. Further, it very well may be surmised that the designers essentially passed by the rules which are actualized in money related frameworks to forestall any episodes of extortion, at the same time neglected the parts of diminishing defenselessness. The database has ceaselessly flopped in its proposed establishment to satisfy the specialized job, the board, and guideline of bookkeeping. The exact specialized viewpoints in respect to the capacity of the framework are ignored by the SOX rulesEven though PCs are executed for a smooth result of works, on occasion they can make the buckle down to do, more so with an ineffectively actualized database. One such case of an ineffectively actualized database that one can run over is the SOX database. SOX, which was executed after the Sarbanes-Oxley Act 2002, to battle with the misrepresentation by discovering bookkeeping reviews just as the executives of money related records which are proficient. It ought to be noticed that a database ought to dependably keep two key elements kept up, right off the bat, a specific expectation for which it has been actualized and second, the executives and information associations ought to be well set up. It tends to be gathered that the database engineers flopped in including the aspects of controlling misrepresentation in the framework. Or maybe just the unmistakable violations were focused on. This left enough gaps that could be used to misuse the SOS frameworkTo attack such issues the potential the arrangement can be going for electronic administration rather than physical information and going for information wellbeing. In spite of the fact that this inadequately executed database gave a façade of the executives which was continuously encouraged in numerous organizations before, it very well may be evident that the specialized were influencing the framework. Since the misstep is forthright, this ought to be improved and fixed to improve PC activities.Note:-Its a Discussion and two replies for above questioni need everything in separate documents as 1st document should be discussion , 2nd document should be reply 1 and 3rd document should be reply 2.make sure no turnitin and no plagiarism please dont copy it from any source write in your own words.make sure you write everything in own wordsPlease dont copy from any source we have a turnitin.And send me three documents in different folder.send me files according to attached pic

Theories of Health Promotion and Diversity Discussion Nursing Assignment Help

Read chapter 4, 13 & 14 of the class textbook and review the attached PowerPoint presentations.  Once done, answer the following questions;

Discuss various theories of health promotion, including Pender’s Health Promotion Model, the Health Belief Model, the Transtheoretical Theory, and the Theory of Reasoned Action.
Discuss at least two definitions of health.
Critically analyze racial and cultural diversity in the United States.
Describe the importance of air, water and food quality as a determinant of health.

Expert Solution Preview
In the field of medical education, it is vital for medical college students to acquire a strong foundation in various aspects of health promotion, understanding definitions of health, analyzing racial and cultural diversity, and recognizing the importance of environmental factors on health. As a medical professor, it is my responsibility to provide comprehensive lectures and design assignments that enhance students’ understanding of these critical topics. In this document, I will provide answers to the assigned questions regarding theories of health promotion, definitions of health, racial and cultural diversity, and the impact of air, water, and food quality on health.
Answer to Question 1:
Various theories of health promotion play a fundamental role in guiding healthcare professionals’ efforts to enhance and maintain the health of individuals and communities. Four notable theories in this field are discussed below:
a) Pender’s Health Promotion Model: Developed by Nola J. Pender, this theory emphasizes the role of personal behaviors and individual characteristics in promoting health. The model highlights the importance of self-efficacy, perceived benefits and barriers, interpersonal influences, and situational influences on health-promoting behaviors. It acknowledges that individuals have the ability to take control of their health through proactive decision-making and the adoption of healthy behaviors.
b) Health Belief Model: This theory suggests that an individual’s belief in the severity of a health condition, susceptibility to it, benefits of taking preventive action, and barriers to such action influence their likelihood of engaging in health-promoting behaviors. It emphasizes the significance of perception and motivation in adopting preventive measures and has been widely used to understand individuals’ decision-making processes regarding healthcare.
c) Transtheoretical Theory: Also known as the Stages of Change Model, this theory proposes that individuals go through distinct stages when adopting health behaviors. The stages include precontemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, and maintenance. This model recognizes that individuals have different readiness levels to change and provides strategies to tailor interventions accordingly. It highlights the importance of understanding an individual’s stage of change to effectively promote health-related behavioral changes.
d) Theory of Reasoned Action: This theory focuses on behavioral intentions as a predictor of behavior. It suggests that individuals’ intentions to engage in a particular behavior are influenced by their attitudes toward the behavior and the subjective norms associated with it. This theory considers the role of social influences and individual beliefs in promoting health-related behaviors.
Answer to Question 2:
Health can be defined and interpreted in various ways, with different perspectives presenting unique aspects of well-being. Here are two definitions of health:
a) World Health Organization (WHO) Definition: The WHO defines health as a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being, and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity. This definition highlights the holistic nature of health and emphasizes the importance of multiple dimensions, including physical, mental, and social aspects of well-being.
b) Biomedical Model Definition: The biomedical model of health defines health as the absence of disease or illness. This definition focuses primarily on the physiological or biological state of an individual and may not encompass the broader aspects of well-being.
It is essential to note that these definitions represent different perspectives, and healthcare professionals often adopt a broader and holistic understanding of health, considering multiple dimensions beyond the absence of disease.
Answer to Question 3:
Racial and cultural diversity significantly impact healthcare in the United States. Critical analysis of this diversity involves recognizing the influence of various cultures, race, socioeconomic status, and healthcare disparities on individuals’ health outcomes. By understanding racial and cultural diversity, healthcare professionals can provide more effective and culturally sensitive care. Some key points to consider regarding racial and cultural diversity in the United States include:
a) Healthcare disparities: Racial and ethnic minorities often experience healthcare disparities, including limited access to quality care, higher rates of chronic diseases, and poorer health outcomes. These disparities are influenced by factors such as discrimination, socioeconomic status, language barriers, cultural beliefs, and healthcare system biases.
b) Cultural competence: Healthcare providers need to be culturally competent, which involves understanding and respecting the cultural beliefs, values, and norms of diverse populations. Culturally competent care improves patient-provider relationships, enhances patient satisfaction, and promotes better health outcomes.
c) Health literacy: Racial and cultural diversity impact health literacy levels in the United States, with some communities facing challenges in understanding and accessing healthcare information. Healthcare providers must employ effective communication strategies and provide culturally appropriate health education materials to address these disparities.
By critically analyzing racial and cultural diversity, healthcare professionals can foster an inclusive and equitable healthcare system that meets the diverse needs of all individuals.
Answer to Question 4:
The quality of air, water, and food plays a crucial role as determinants of health. Here are the key points highlighting their importance:
a) Air Quality: Exposure to pollutants in the air, such as particulate matter, ozone, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen dioxide, can have detrimental effects on respiratory health, cardiovascular health, and overall well-being. Poor air quality contributes to an increased risk of respiratory diseases, allergies, asthma, and even lung cancer. It is essential to address air pollution through environmental regulations and promote public health initiatives that aim to reduce pollution levels.
b) Water Quality: Access to clean and safe drinking water is essential for maintaining good health. Contamination of water sources with harmful substances, bacteria, viruses, or chemicals can lead to waterborne diseases and other health hazards. Ensuring adequate water treatment, sanitation infrastructure, and monitoring systems are critical for preserving water quality and preventing waterborne illnesses.
c) Food Quality: The quality of the food we consume directly impacts our health. Poor food quality, such as consuming processed foods high in saturated fats, added sugars, and artificial additives, can contribute to the development of chronic conditions like obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases. Promoting access to fresh, nutritious, and culturally appropriate food options, as well as educating individuals about healthy eating habits, is crucial for improving overall health outcomes.
Recognizing the importance of air, water, and food quality as determinants of health allows healthcare professionals to advocate for environmental policies, educate individuals about healthy choices, and address public health issues related to these factors.
In conclusion, as a medical professor responsible for creating college assignments and evaluating student performance, it is crucial to address key topics related to health promotion, definitions of health, racial and cultural diversity, and environmental determinants of health. By providing comprehensive answers to these questions, students can enhance their understanding of these crucial aspects of medical education and practice.

The Right to Die with Euthanasia Methods Nursing Assignment Help

Analyze U.S. healthcare policy structures and the role of the nursing leader as a change agent at the public policy table.
You will decide on a policy issue that needs to be addressed. You may choose a policy issue that interests you. Below are suggested topics for proposed policy change, however if you wish to address another topic please contact your instructor for approval:
Treatment of veterans after deployment and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).
Cost of end of life care.
Costs of drugs in the United States as compared to other countries.

Quarantine of health care workers that have been exposed to communicable diseases.
Medical care for illegal immigrants.
Right to die with euthanasia methods.
Disclosure of medical records of pilots and other safety sensitive professionals and HIPAA violations.
Restrictions of roles of nurse practitioners and advanced practice nurses in certain states.
Health care reform.
Requirements of meaningful use to meet core measures.
ICD-10 issues.
Entry into practice issues.
Mandatory vaccination of children.
Allowing nurses educated in other countries to practice in the United States.
Faculty shortages in U.S. nursing education programs.
You will write a letter using professional business format to one of your Federal legislators outlining what the issue is and why it is important. The letter will address:
The current policy structure.
The need for the change.

The suggested change.
Cost implications if the change is implemented.

The role the nurse as a change agent will take at the policy table. 
Assignment Requirements
Before finalizing your work, you should:
be sure to read the Assignment description carefully (as displayed above);
consult the Grading Rubric (under the Course Resources) to make sure you have included everything necessary; and

utilize spelling and grammar check to minimize errors.
Your writing Assignment should:
follow the conventions of Standard English (correct grammar, punctuation, etc.);
be well ordered, logical, and unified, as well as original and insightful;

display superior content, organization, style, and mechanics; and

Expert Solution Preview
As a medical professor, it is important to analyze U.S. healthcare policy structures and the role of nursing leaders as change agents at the public policy table. This topic explores the impact of policy changes on various aspects of healthcare and emphasizes the role of nursing leaders in advocating for necessary changes. The assignment requires students to choose a policy issue, understand the current policy structure, propose a change, assess the cost implications, and discuss the role of nurses as change agents.
Title: Analyzing the Role of Nursing Leaders in U.S. Healthcare Policy Structures
In the field of healthcare, policy plays a crucial role in shaping the delivery, accessibility, and quality of care. Understanding the U.S. healthcare policy structures and the role of nursing leaders as change agents at the public policy table is vital for medical college students. This assignment provides an opportunity for students to critically assess a policy issue and explore the potential impact of policy changes. Additionally, it highlights the significance of nursing leaders in advocating for these changes and initiating positive transformations in the healthcare system.
When addressing a policy issue, it is essential to thoroughly analyze the current policy structure. This involves examining the existing policies, regulations, and guidelines that govern the particular issue. For example, if the chosen topic is the cost of end-of-life care, students should consider the current reimbursement mechanisms, insurance coverage policies, and healthcare funding allocations related to this aspect of care. Understanding the context in which the issue exists helps students identify areas that require change.
Following the assessment of the current policy structure, students should focus on highlighting the need for change. This involves identifying the reasons or challenges that necessitate policy modifications. For instance, to support the treatment of veterans suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), students may emphasize the increasing number of veterans affected by mental health conditions due to their service and the inadequacy of existing policies to address their specialized healthcare needs. Clearly articulating the need for change creates a strong foundation for advocating policy reforms.
Next, students should propose the change they believe would be beneficial in addressing the identified issue. This requires students to provide a well-reasoned recommendation for modifying the existing policies. For instance, in the case of nurse practitioners and advanced practice nurses facing restrictions in certain states, students may propose expanded scopes of practice or a uniform regulatory framework that allows these professionals to practice to the full extent of their education and training. The proposed change should align with the identified need and offer a viable solution.
Furthermore, it is crucial to assess the cost implications of implementing the proposed change. Students should thoroughly analyze the potential financial impact associated with policy modifications. This assessment should consider the costs related to training, infrastructure, staffing, and resource allocation required to support the intended change. By analyzing the potential costs, students can evaluate the feasibility of their proposed change and consider potential funding sources or cost-saving strategies.
Lastly, students need to recognize the role of nurses as change agents at the policy table. Nursing leaders can leverage their clinical expertise, research skills, and advocacy abilities to influence policy decisions. For example, nurses can participate in policy discussions, engage in lobbying efforts, conduct research to support evidence-based policies, and collaborate with other healthcare stakeholders to drive change. Emphasizing the role of nursing leaders as change agents reinforces their importance in shaping healthcare policy and highlights their influence in ensuring the delivery of high-quality, patient-centered care.
In conclusion, analyzing U.S. healthcare policy structures and understanding the role of nursing leaders as change agents at the public policy table is crucial for medical college students. This assignment provides an opportunity to explore a policy issue, assess the current policy structure, propose a change, evaluate the cost implications, and recognize the vital role of nursing leaders. By engaging in such activities, students will develop a deeper understanding of healthcare policy dynamics and the impact their future roles may have in shaping policy and implementing positive changes in the healthcare system.

Stayer University Health Care Policy and Law Discussion Nursing Assignment Help

Written Assignment: Comparing Factors that Lead to Underdevelopment
Due Week 9 and worth 400 points
This assignment calls for you to select two Less Developed Countries  (LDCs) and assess if there are any factors that are common to both as  far as their development is concerned. Your two countries must come from the following list:




Central African Republic

North Korea








Equatorial Guinea










El Salvador






Sri Lanka














South Africa







Source: United Nations, 2014
It may help you to be familiar with the concept of poor governance,  because this often plays a significant part in why a country is  underdeveloped. According to the World Bank, governance  is defined as how power is exercised in the management of a country’s  economic and social resources for development. Therefore, if good governance is synonymous with sound development management, then poor governance  means a government has failed to deliver desirable outcomes for its  people. This could mean that officials are corrupt, not transparent with  their decisions, unqualified to make decisions in the first place, or  prone to make decisions based on racism, tribalism or ethnicity — all of  which are very common practices in LCDs.
The most common factor used to decide whether countries are  underdeveloped nations is through the Human Development Index. Countries  that are underdeveloped in nature offer poor health care, few  educational opportunities, a low average life expectancy, a low number  of job opportunities, few recreational facilities, poor economic growth,  a low standard of living and a poverty-stricken life.
Write at least a six-page paper, in which you:
Identify the two LDCs (from the list above), which you will compare and assess. Explain why you chose these two countries. 
Analyze the features that the LDCs have in common using at least five of the following nine factors (clearly label the five factors using headings):
extractive institutions 
governmental corruption 
internal or external conflicts 
shaky financial systems 
unfair judicial systems 
ethnic, racial or tribal disparities 
lack or misuse of natural resources 
closed (statist) economies 
Use at least seven credible sources. Wikipedia,  encyclopedias, dictionaries, blogs and other material that does not  qualify as reputable academic source work at the college level. Do not  use sources that are older than seven years.
Your assignment must follow these formatting requirements:
Be typed, double-spaced (no extra spacing between paragraphs), using  Times New Roman font (size 12), with one-inch margins on all sides. 
Citations and references must follow APA or school-specific format. Check with your professor for any additional instructions.
Include a cover page containing the title of the assignment, the  student’s name, the professor’s name, the course title, and the date (do  not include an abstract).
The cover page and the reference page are not included in the  required assignment page length. Graphs, tables and photographs are not counted toward the length of the paper; only what you have written as text itself.
The specific course learning outcomes associated with this assignment are:
Determine why private investment, open political competition and the  intelligent use of natural resources can serve as incentives to further  economic development.
Decide why good governance, a sound financial system, and a fair system of judicial justice are necessary to development.
Assess why enforceable environmental regulations are critical to sustaining development.
Use technology and information resources to research issues in sociology of developing countries.
Write clearly and concisely about sociology of developing countries using proper writing mechanics.

Expert Solution Preview
In this written assignment, students are tasked with comparing factors that contribute to underdevelopment in two Less Developed Countries (LDCs). The assignment requires students to choose two countries from a provided list and analyze common factors of underdevelopment. They are expected to apply at least five out of nine specified factors and support their findings with at least seven credible sources. The assignment aims to assess students’ understanding of the concept of poor governance and its impact on a country’s development.
Based on the given instructions, it is crucial to choose two LDCs from the provided list and explain the rationale behind the selection.
For this assignment, I have chosen Nigeria and Yemen as the two countries for comparison and assessment. Both countries exhibit a range of common factors that contribute to their underdevelopment. This selection allows for a comprehensive analysis of how these factors have affected economic, social, and political progress in both nations.
1. Nigeria: Nigeria, located in West Africa, is the most populous country in Africa. It is often referred to as the “Giant of Africa” due to its large population and vast natural resources. Despite these advantages, Nigeria faces significant challenges in achieving sustainable development.
2. Yemen: Yemen, located in the Middle East on the Arabian Peninsula, is known for its historical significance and strategic location. The country has been plagued by internal conflicts, political instability, and humanitarian crises, hampering its progress towards development.
These two countries were chosen based on their contrasting geographical locations and the significant challenges they face in achieving development. Nigeria represents a country with abundant natural resources but struggles with issues such as corruption, ethnic disparities, and a shaky financial system. On the other hand, Yemen is a country with limited natural resources and faces additional challenges such as internal conflicts and poor governance.
By comparing these two countries, we can gain insights into the common factors that hinder development and understand the specific challenges faced by LDCs.
In the subsequent analysis, at least five out of the nine specified factors will be used to assess the similarities between Nigeria and Yemen in terms of their development. The chosen factors will be supported by credible sources to ensure accuracy and reliability.
Overall, this assignment provides an opportunity for students to critically analyze the common factors contributing to underdevelopment in LDCs and demonstrate their understanding of the impact of governance, economics, and social aspects on a country’s development. Through this research, students will develop a deeper insight into the complexity of factors involved in the development process and the importance of addressing these issues for sustainable progress.