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Indiana University Bloomington Early Childhood Social and Emotional Development Essay

After reading Chapter 9, Social and Emotional Developmentand the Social StudiesCHAPYER 9 BELOW© Radius / SuperStockAfter reading this chapter, you should be able to: From the FieldCritical Thinking QuestionYou know that in addition to meeting children’s physical needs and approaches to learning standards, a very important part of teaching young children is promoting and encouraging healthy social and emotional development. Some of the families of your class group are experiencing great stress—at least one family in your class is struggling with unemployment and at risk of losing its home, another has a military parent deployed to a combat zone, and a third is providing in-home care for a grandparent who recently had a stroke. You wonder how these circumstances might affect the children’s emotional stability and behavior and how you can help all the children to become confident in their ability to deal with challenges and solve problems they experience at school.You want the children to develop a strong sense of self and relate well to their teachers and peers. You also want to incorporate a developmentally appropriate approach to encourage them to regulate their own behavior and create a caring and vibrant classroom community. In this chapter, we explore important concepts and effective strategies for social and emotional development and a developmentally appropriate approach to social studies curriculum and standards.Previous section Next section As described in Chapter 4, the social and emotional needs of young children vary by age, personality, and circumstances. Social psychologists, led by Erik Erikson (1950), consider it critically important that young children develop secure attachments and trusting relationships, a positive self-image and confidence, independence regulated by awareness of and sensitivity to others’ feelings and expectations, and the ability to make and keep friends and function as a member of a community. These ideas provide the framework for early learning standards that focus on social and emotional development and are consistent with the 1997 National Education Goals Panel recommendations. Social and emotional development is an important element of early childhood curriculum for a number of reasons related to the development of resilience, self-regulation, and early childhood as a window of opportunity.Children who acquire the skills emphasized in the early learning standards for social-emotional development are far more likely to be resilient, able to cope with stress and overcome adversity. (McClelland, Cameron, Wanless, & Murray, 2007; Pawlina & Stanford, 2011; Pizzolongo & Hunter, 2011). The kinds of significant challenges children face today include violence, abuse or neglect, natural disasters, economic distress within their families, and separation from loved ones. They also experience the typical developmental dilemmas that emerge as they begin to form friendships, experience rejection, and bond with unfamiliar adults.Resilient children display a sense of agency, a feeling of control over their own decisions, and confidence in their ability to solve problems. They also do better in school over the long term. Their mindset tends towards optimism in face of a dilemma or challenge (Pawlina & Stanford, 2011, p. 31). People without resilience, in contrast, feel powerless to improve their circumstances or solve problems (Pizzolongo & Hunter, 2011).Consider the family caring for a disabled grandparent and the range of reactions the child might display—the resilient child might see his grandpa’s illness as an opportunity to spend more time with him, reading books, sitting with him in the room and helping his parents with care needs; the child with a lack of resilience might instead pick up on a sense of parental distress, feel anxious, and act out for attention as he observes his parents spending time caring for grandpa when he feels he needs their attention himself. Children with special needs face additional challenges and may particularly need to develop skills associated with resiliency (McClelland, Cameron, Wanless, & Murray, 2007).Self-regulation is the ability to make decisions to control impulses in varying situations. An increasing body of research confirms strong links between early and long-term academic success and a child’s ability to regulate her own behavior, work independently, control impulses, and follow directions (McClelland, Cameron, Wanless, & Murray, 2007; Papalia & Feldman, 2011). These are learning skills that emerge with the development of executive functioning, as stressed in the Approaches to Learning standards (Chapter 7). While multiple factors including temperament, brain development, and home environment contribute to shaping these abilities, teachers certainly play an important role in helping children learn how to thrive in educational environments (Jewkes & Morrison, 2007).Social and academic competence is linked to classrooms with warm and responsive teachers and positive teacher-child interactions. Self-regulation that is internally motivated, rather than a response to expected rewards, also seems to develop best in classrooms where children have many opportunities to make and be accountable for their own decisions (Pianta, LaParo, Payne, Cox, & Bradley, 2002).© iStockphoto / ThinkstockBrain research points to the importance of acquiring these learning-related skills during the early childhood period (Masten & Gewirtz, 2006). The field of early childhood education has long emphasized the need for social and emotional competence and teachers who understand how children construct their social selves in a similar hands-on fashion as in other areas of development; studies today confirm more than ever that this continues to be the case (Saracho & Spodek, 2007).In the next two sections, we explore a social environment that promotes healthy development of these qualities and how teachers facilitate development of self-concept, social competence, and self-regulation.Providing an environment that promotes healthy social and emotional development requires considering the social ecology of the classroom (van Hoorn, Nourot, Scales, & Alward, 2011), or how interaction patterns vary according to setting and type of activity. Think of social ecology from the perspective of Bronfenbrenner, as a network of individual personalities as well as overlapping peer groups, characterized by different ways children join, create, or are assigned by others—by popularity, interest, friendship, ability, and so on. Understanding group identification as a natural human activity is important, since groups can have an impact on the social development of individuals (Kindermann & Gest, 2009). For instance, a teacher creates an artificial social ecology by assigning children to permanent or fixed reading groups using a single characteristic such as ability (homogeneous grouping). Subsequently, the children may recognize these distinctions and label their peers in these groups as “smart” or “dumb” and behave toward one another with this label in mind. Classroom ecology evolves more naturally when teachers vary the assignment of children to working groups (heterogeneous grouping) and monitor how children create and self-select their own membership in groups. Teachers learn a great deal about individual strengths and needs from observing the ways children form groups and interact with one another.In the class discussed above, those same children whom the teacher labeled by ability might categorize themselves by interest, such as “artists,” or “block builders.” Or they might develop perceptions about ability but express them differently, such as “fast runners” or “good storytellers.” Of course it is also possible that some group assignments would not be positive, such as “troublemakers” or “mean kids.” Teachers use this information to help individual children with social skills and to guide groups toward inclusive and positive interactions.Social acceptance, rejection, confidence levels, and self-image are all affected by social ecology and can also be very distinctive, fluid, or idiosyncratic from one class to the next. Teachers are most likely to establish a positive social atmosphere when they:Helping each child feel comfortable and safe at school or care is best achieved with a gradual approach. Preenrollment visits and individual interactions with the teacher build trust. Small-group play before whole-group activities helps children get to know each other. Acknowledging, modeling, and helping children express their feelings from the start allows them to feel emotionally safe and secure (Hendrick & Weissman, 2007).© Corbis / SuperStocka positive social climate is helping families establish separation routines that allow the child to transition easily into school or care. Building community is an ongoing process that also starts before children enter the program, with home visits as well as written and verbal communications. It continues every day as teachers welcome children, establish routines that involve them in caring for the classroom and each other, and plan and conduct activities that help them learn about the concept of community and investigate the community in which they live and go to school or care.Teachers establish a positive verbal environment when they use language to demonstrate respect for children and their abilities by showing genuine interest in their activities and asking a variety of questions. Perhaps a teacher might say, “Wow, I see that you have brought in some very interesting rocks to share with us—can you tell us about where you found them and what you know about them?” Teachers model courtesy and help children understand expectations with language such as, “It would be so helpful if you could . . . ” Or “Thank you so much for putting your trucks away—you knew right where they belong.”Teachers should also encourage children to use their words to describe the choices they make, with opportunities to make decisions that are meaningful and important (Meese & Soderman, 2010). For example, a teacher might say, “I see you have put the ‘work in progress’ sign on your block structure—you must have some big ideas about what you are building—can you tell me about what you want to do next?” These kinds of verbal interactions help children feel valued and special and create conditions that affirm positive perceptions of themselves and others.The positive verbal environment can be used as a context for facilitating play interactions as teachers establish defined activity areas and pathways to allow for different types of social exchange. For example, by choosing and arranging furniture and equipment that encourage face-to-face encounters, teachers increase the chance that children will engage with one another (van Hoorn, Nourot, Scales, & Alward, 2007). A comfortable area with pillows or soft furniture and homelike lighting for reading and looking at books encourages conversation and personal interactions. A playhouse in the outdoor space invites children to congregate and play in small groups.Direct teaching and modeling takes many forms, from having a conversation with an individual child about how to communicate anger with words to guiding three children through settling a dispute or constructing a set of “friendship guidelines” with an entire group or class.© iStockphoto / ThinkstockIn many ways, a teacher or caregiver’s behavior and interaction patterns are as important to children’s social and emotional development as any materials or activities in the classroom (Copple & Bredekamp, 2009; Gallagher & Mayer, 2006; Willis & Schiller, 2011). In general, regardless of the age of children, teachers support social and emotional or affective development by building high-quality relationships with them. The specific characteristics of teacher-child interactions will vary over time and by age as teachers get to know their children, become familiar with them as individuals, establish mutual trust and respect, and commit to a long-term relationship with each child and family (Gallagher & Mayer, 2006).Teacher behaviors that promote high-quality relationships include:Previous section Next section Self-concept begins to develop very early, as babies first realize that their limbs are part of their bodies; it grows as toddlers, for example, begin to recognize their images in a mirror (Papalia & Feldman, 2011). This is a multidimensional concept that also affects how a child develops relationships with others.Children acquire personal identity as they learn to recognize and feel comfortable with their self-images and bodies. They begin to understand their social identity as comprising the kinds of things that characterize them as individuals within larger groups, such as ethnicity, culture, gender, and social standing (Derman-Sparks & Edwards, 2010; Kowalski, 2007). They develop an attitude of confidence and an internalized sense of self-worth as they experience repeated success at completing tasks and solving problems. Young children also begin to develop empathy—the ability to imagine or understand how another person might feel in different situations. All these things are needed for a child to build healthy social relationships with peers and others.Young children tend to describe themselves in concrete terms, according to what they look like, what they can do, or what they like or don’t like. They can’t typically provide a description with multiple, integrated or qualitative characteristics until middle childhood (Hendrick & Weissman, 2007). Therefore it makes sense to do activities with them that focus on these concrete attributes so they can begin to develop a vocabulary for describing themselves in terms of things that are real to them, such as, “I have brown eyes” or “I like to dance.” Table 9.1 offers suggestions for steps teachers can take to foster a sense of self.Acquiring social identity includes learning about gender, ethnicity, and ability issues. Experts on multicultural and antibias education advise teachers to focus on values, interaction patterns, and equitable teaching practices, rather than curriculum activities that highlight superficial features like flags or potentially stereotypical images of different cultures, such as a sombrero or feathered headdress (Derman-Sparks & Edwards, 2010; Hendrick & Weissman, 2007). In other words, children are taught to respond to each other courteously as individuals. This helps to create a classroom culture that values respect, caring, and the matter-of-fact recognition of similarities and differences. It also provides the grounding children need as concrete learners to understand their places in the context of others.Strategies that promote an accurate and unbiased environment include the following:Activities that can be used in the classroom to contribute to development of social identity include the following:© iStockphoto / ThinkstockAs children’s cognitive awareness and ability to use words to describe “who I am” develops, they also begin to make comparative judgments about themselves in relation to others. Children tend to have perceptions about their self-worth long before they begin to talk about it, which typically occurs toward the end of the early childhood period (around age 7 or 8) (Papalia & Feldman, 2011). Younger children also seldom make subtle distinctions, usually categorizing themselves at one or the other end of a spectrum, such as good/bad. Further, their ability to be realistic about strengths and weaknesses can be affected by adults who lavish unwarranted praise or who are continually critical.Essential to healthy self-esteem and confidence that motivates children to persist through difficulties is “unconditionality” (Papalia & Feldman, 2011). In other words, if a child’s self-esteem is solely contingent on success, she can develop a sense of helplessness if she is not successful on the first try. Conversely, if a child’s self-esteem and confidence are unconditional attributes, a failed attempt will only lead him to try repeatedly until he succeeds. Over time, children who lack confidence expect to fail and become more reluctant to take risks, while an overconfident child may not learn how to react to failure (Willis & Schiller, 2011).The goal for teachers of young children is to help them develop realistic confidence in several ways, as Table 9.2 illustrates.As defined earlier, empathy is an abstract concept that develops over a long time. Very young children generally do not experience or express empathy. Infants, toddlers, and young preschoolers tend to be highly egocentric, acknowledging only their own needs and assuming that everyone experiences the world from a single perspective—theirs (Piaget & Inhelder, 1969)! It would not be effective, for example, to address an 18-month-old child who bit another child with, “That was mean! How do you think you made him feel?”The teacher or caregiver could, however use such an episode as an opportunity to begin building empathy. The teacher might say, “Oh, you hurt your friend,” and ask the biter to help comfort the other child, perhaps by holding his hand or helping to hold ice on the bite. Parents, teachers, and caregivers can encourage children—beginning around age 3—to consider how others are feeling, keeping in mind that it takes many such experiences for empathy and compassion to grow.As with many other dimensions of social learning, it is essential to use language to help children recognize what others are feeling or thinking. You might, for example, say “Remember this morning when you couldn’t find the block you were looking for and you got upset? I see that Molly is getting frustrated because she can’t find what she is looking for—can you help her?” Here you are letting both children know that emotions and feelings are universal and that one can demonstrate sympathy and concern.Caregivers can support the development of empathy by providing children with opportunities to care for and recognize emotional signals and body language in others. Children should also be encouraged to consider the fact that different people have different perspectives about the same situation. Simple activities such as looking at, describing, or drawing an interesting seashell from multiple angles, or asking children what they see when they lie on their backs and look up at the sky, provide concrete reference points for discussing point of view.Additional caretaking activities that help children to develop empathy include:© Fotosearch / SuperStockwhich helps children learn to respond to others in distress. To help children learn to recognize and acknowledge others’ feelings, try activities such as: More From the FieldCritical Thinking QuestionWith young children, developing healthy social relationships depends a great deal on a general feeling of safety and confidence (Willis & Schiller, 2011) as well as on established interactions with family members and caretakers, and making/maintaining friendships in the neighborhood and at school or child care (Howes & Lee, 2007). One of the most heartbreaking things a teacher can witness is a child who is a social outcast, unable or unwilling to make friends, clearly miserable and unhappy most of the time. Infants as young as 2 months begin to distinguish peers from others and by 2 years of age have begun to display preferences in play partners (Kowalski, 2007; Ladd, Herald, & Andrews, 2006).Play-based group settings that provide children with adequate space, time to play, open-ended and creative activities support positive and complex interactions between and among children more than those with highly directed programs and limited access to materials (Howes & Lee, 2007; Ladd, Herald, & Andrews, 2006). Important as well is evidence that close and trusting relationships between children and their teachers provide children with emotional resources that help them manage stress and aggressive tendencies (Gallagher & Mayer, 2006; Gallagher, Dadisman, Farmer, Huss, & Hutchins, 2007; Howes & Lee, 2007; Ladd & Burgess, 2001). Two challenges for teachers to help children develop healthy social relationships are promoting peer-group acceptance and facilitating and creating the conditions for children to form friendships with other individuals.© Visions of America / SuperStockThrough observation and interactions with children, early educators learn to distinguish between general acceptance of a child by his peers and true friendships between individual children characterized by mutual affection, companionship, and longevity (Kostelnik, Soderman, & Whiren, 2007). The factors that attract children to their peers are very similar to those that attract adults—shared interests, personality, appearance, and behavior (Howes & Lee, 2007; Kowalski, 2007).General peer acceptance is important, since much of a child’s day at school or care involves interactions with others in play, small- or large-group activities with adults, snacks and mealtimes, story time, or rest. Some of these activities are more “high profile” than others; for example, if a child states loudly, “Ewww, I don’t want Timmy to sit with me at lunch,” it is likely other children will hear and the probability of Timmy being rejected by others increases (Ladd, Herald, & Andrews, 2006). Further, once a child has established a negative reputation, that reputation becomes more and more difficult to overcome, and it becomes harder for the child to form individual friendships as well (Buhs & Ladd, 2001; Gallagher et al., 2007; Persson, 2005).Because play is typically a fluid activity, with children moving about and highly engaged in what they are doing, a child can “practice” negotiating relationships with peers by inviting others to play or asking them to join a play in progress. Studies have shown that children are most successful in their attempts to join group play when teachers encourage them to:Young children communicate and cooperate more with their friends than with other children (Howes & Lee, 2007; Kowalski, 2007). They also have more conflicts but usually find ways to resolve them (Kostelnik, Soderman, & Whiren, 2007). Over time, from spending a lot of time together and sharing experiences (mutual socialization), they may even take on similar characteristics or preferences, such as hairstyles, clothing, or musical tastes (Howes & Lee, 2007; Kids Matter, 2009).Young children are more likely to make friends when they are able to use their words effectively to initiate conversations, express feelings, provide ideas for play, and compliment other children. They are also more successful when their behavior is generally helpful and cooperative, demonstrating the ability to share and take turns, refusing to join in others’ negative behavior, playing fair, following rules, and being good losers (Bovey & Strain, 2012; Kids Matter, 2009).Engaging young children with activities that model and teach friendship integrates all the elements of self-concept, as Figure 9.1 shows.Many types of activities can be used to promote friendship, pro-social skills, and a sense of community and belonging. Such activities might include those listed in Table 9.3.Previous section Next section Self-regulation links all the domains of development and is considered one of the most reliable predictors of academic and social success in later life (McClelland, Cameron, Wanless, & Murray, 2007; Papalia & Feldman, 2011). It is important during early childhood because children need to learn how to delay gratification; respond and adapt to rules; and handle frustration, challenges, and disappointments in socially acceptable ways. We want them to do so not only because of the sense of satisfaction they feel when they know they are making good decisions but also because being able to control themselves sets them up as more likely to achieve success as adults.Adults promote self-regulation when, before stepping in to help, they wait to see if the child can solve a dilemma alone. That is, they wait not so long that the child becomes frustrated and angry or at risk for getting hurt but to communicate confidence that at some point they expect that the child will be able to solve problems independently.The primary goal of classroom or group-care behavior management is not for the teacher or adult to manage the children but for the children to learn how to regulate themselves. Behavior is the visible representation of the child’s effort at any given moment to integrate what he or she wants or feels with what he or she chooses to do.Many factors motivate children’s behavior and the decisions they make, and a “one size fits all” approach to classroom management is neither universally effective nor considered developmentally appropriate (Copple & Bredekamp, 2009; Kohn, 1999). A sound approach to guidance includes the following:When you see a child “fly off the handle,” know that the child decided to do so because it seemed the only option, whether or not the child is aware of having come to that conclusion after weighing alternatives. Brain research has revealed that when children experience prolonged or significant stress, a chemical reaction interferes with the “fight or flight” response, resulting in reactive aggression as a protective measure against a perceived threat (Bruno, 2011; Gartrell, 2011). Therefore children experiencing high levels of stress at home or in school may act out for reasons much more complex than a simple mischievous desire to break a rule or get something they want.Automatically punishing reactive aggression only serves to make the situation worse, as punishment compounds the stress that caused the behavior in the first place. Sometimes it can be difficult to figure out what is going on when a situation erupts or a child consistently misbehaves, but it is important to do so in order to help the child make connections between feelings and actions so that he or she can begin to make better decisions.© Hemera / ThinkstockSelf-regulation begins in infancy, as babies gradually learn that their needs will be met by responsive adults (Papalia & Feldman, 2011). For example, the newborn cries in response to all stressors (being wet or soiled, hungry, thirsty, and so on). Over time, baby learns to wait before crying as he begins to trust that when hungry, he will soon be fed, when wet, he will be changed, and so forth. Caregivers help infants and toddlers with self-regulation by providing a context and routines that are predictable and anticipating their needs when possible so they don’t have to handle too many challenges at once. When an adult remains calm while the child is angry or crying and uses words to describe what the child might be feeling, the child learns that his feelings are acceptable.By interacting with babies and toddlers in routines—such as diapering, bathing, and feeding—and communicating what they can do to participate, adults help them to establish self-efficacy. For instance, while changing a 6-month old, the caregiver may say, “Can you lift up your bottom to help me get the dirty diaper out so we can put the new one on?” More From the FieldCritical Thinking QuestionSome infant-toddler curricula include the use of signing with preverbal infants and toddlers to begin giving them tools with which to communicate what they need or want as well as “announcing” what they might choose to do (Vallotton, 2008). For example, a 12-month-old might learn to shake his head, signifying “no,” as he approaches a hot stove, to indicate that he has learned not to touch it. Similarly, he might learn to stroke his forearm to indicate that he knows he needs to use a gentle touch.As children acquire language and become increasingly able to control their movements, early educators help preschool and primary children develop self-control by emphasizing that how they feel or what they think is not the same thing as what they choose to do. Thus adults need to first help them acknowledge or identify emotions and, second, learn how to express themselves and solve problems with words or other appropriate actions.Suppressing or denying emotions teaches children that certain feelings are not permitted, or bad, and damages the self-esteem a child needs to make difficult decisions with confidence. Children are also sometimes frightened by the intensity of their feelings. Therefore three of the most helpful skills you can develop as a teacher are close observation, active listening, and modeling how to express feelings with words.Close observation, or monitoring how children seem to be feeling and looking for signs of distress, gives you the opportunity to invite a child to open up and talk before losing control. Especially with infants and toddlers but also with older children, you focus on interpreting their body language, as sometimes children don’t know an appropriate word or the ones they do know seem inadequate to convey their feelings. As you get to know the children, you begin to recognize signals and can guess at describing how they are feeling.Particular emotions have recognizable features, such as a red face or clenched fists (anger), diverted eyes or a crumpled body (guilt), or tears (sadness) (Bruno, 2011). Picking up on these cues, you might say to a child, “Your body seems all stiff and tight; I’m wondering if you are feeling mad about something.”© iStockphoto / ThinkstockActive listening means giving a child your undivided attention and accepting what is said without judgment. You reserve your approval or disapproval and focus on how the child chooses to act on his or her feelings. Active listening conveys and models empathy—that you care about how children feel and acknowledge that their problems are real and important (Hendrick & Weissman, 2007). Further, if you paraphrase, or repeat back in your own words what you heard a child say, you help teach the subtle difference between lashing out with words (to hurt another in an attempt to make oneself feel better) and the more constructive process of reporting to another person how you feel as the first step in solving a problem.For example, LaToya, a 4-year-old playing in the housekeeping center, is pretending to make pancakes and goes to the refrigerator where play food is stored to get some milk. Mario is already there and takes out the very item LaToya wants. She turns to Mario, stomps her foot, and says, “No, no, stupid, that’s mine!” and then proceeds to try to take the milk away from him. The teacher steps in, saying, “LaToya, your words tell me that you are upset because Mario has something you wanted to use” (paraphrasing). The teacher might follow with, “but you hurt his feelings with the words you used; can you try again to tell him what you need and see if he can help you with that?”Teachers can model how to talk about feelings as a natural part of conversation and to let children know that experiencing a range of feelings is normal. For instance, you might describe how pleased you are that you will be going out to dinner with friends for your birthday, that you are sad at having to say goodbye to your son going off to college, or that you felt frustrated because you were in a hurry but had to wait in a long line at the grocery store.Finally, you can provide children with alternatives for expressing their feelings with words or actions that are harmless, such as:© iStockphoto / ThinkstockAs children begin to identify, acknowledge, and express their feelings, they also need practice to learn how to solve problems and resolve conflicts. Key to this process is not only actively facilitating problem resolution when conflicts are happening but also having intentional conversations with children about decision making when they are not.First, discussion provides an opportunity to think objectively and dispassionately about the kinds of problems children have or might experience. Second, children develop a shared sense of responsibility and ownership over the process. Third, identifying typical problems and brainstorming solutions provide them with resources—a “toolbox” of strategies they can draw from to try to solve problems themselves. Teachers need to keep in mind that there can be more than one appropriate response for a given situation and that children sometimes generate potential solutions that the teacher might not think of.A teacher might encourage children to generate a list of scenarios and possibly useful strategies or solutions, writing them down on a chart posted in the classroom for future reference. For instance, to resolve conflicts over toys or other objects,

Pier review | Engineering homework help

Ressessment Brief (First-Sit and Re-Sit)

Dr Allan Osborne | KA7064 People in Project Management Page 1 of 7

1 Key Information
1.1 Module title

People in Project Management
1.2 Module code number
1.3 Module level and credit points
Level 7 and 20 points
1.4 Summative reassessment component(s) and weighting(s)
1. Coursework (Peer Review) …………………………………………………………………………………… 10% weighting
2. Coursework (Academic Paper) …………………………………………………………………………….. 90% weighting
1.5 Module leader
Dr Allan Osborne
1.6 Reassessment Period
Semester 3 2022-23
1.7 Cohort
Newcastle campus students

2 Reassessment Submission and Feedback
2.1 Reassessment overview

This module has two components of summative reassessment. These include:
1. Coursework in the form of a Peer Review exercise
2. Coursework in the form of an Academic Paper
2.2 Release date of reassessment brief
The module leader released this reassessment brief to you on:
? 09:00 (UK time) on Friday, 23 June 2023
2.3 Medium used to disseminate reassessment brief
You will find this reassessment brief in Content > Reassessment > Reassessment Brief.
2.4 Dates and times of submissions
You are required to submit the reassessment components listed above in Section 2.1 by no later than the
following dates and times:
1. Peer Review …………………………………………………………………… 13:00 (UK time) on Thursday, 24 August 2023
2. Academic Paper ……………………………………………………………. 13:00 (UK time) on Thursday, 24 August 2023

2.5 Return date of your unconfirmed internally moderated marks and feedback

The module leader will post your Peer Review feedback and your unconfirmed internally moderated mark
and feedback for the Academic Paper by no later than the following dates and times:

Dr Allan Osborne | KA7064 People in Project Management Page 2 of 7

1. Peer Review ……………………………………………………………. 13:00 (UK time) on Thursday, 21 September 2023
2. Academic Paper …………………………………………………….. 13:00 (UK time) on Thursday, 21 September 2023

2.6 Mechanism for return of your unconfirmed marks and feedback

The module leader will use Turnitin feedback studio to return your feedback and unconfirmed internally
moderated marks. You can find the Turnitin digital submission points from which you will access your
feedback and unconfirmed internally moderated marks in Content > Reassessment.

3 Peer Review and Academic Paper

The headline quotation for the Academic Paper and Peer Review is:
“Leadership in a team setting is much less about command and control and more about getting the most
out of a diverse and experienced group of individuals” (Ernst and Young, 2013).

3.1 Peer Review

Peer Review only has one step during reassessment. You can read what this step is in the following sub-
section. There are only two possible Peer Review marks: 0% or 100%. To gain 100%, you must complete
all reassessment tasks and requirements stipulated in this Reassessment Brief for Peer Review. You
cannot apply for a Short Extension of Time for Assessment Component 001 (Peer Review) because the
module leader has notified the Student Engagement Team that it cannot grant you a Short Extension of
Time for Assessment Component 001 (Peer Review).

Peer Review Assignment

The module leader will give you access to two students’ draft Academic Papers for Peer Review once
SLAS has provided the module leader with its official list of reassessment students.
This assessment component requires you to provide constructive, supportive feedback using the
Reassessment Peer Review Questions provided by the module leader. Using the questions, you must
complete a peer review for Reassessment Draft Academic Paper 1 and Reassessment Draft
Academic Paper 2. The questions are mapped to the Module Learning Outcomes (MLOs) presented in
Section 6 below. You must write and submit both peer reviews in a single Microsoft Word 365 document
called Reassessment Peer Review.
Peer Review Submission
The module leader will give you access to the Turnitin digital submission point for Peer Review once
SLAS has provided the module leader with its official list of reassessment students.
You will use a Turnitin digital submission point at Content > Reassessment > Peer Review
(Reassessment) to submit your single Microsoft Word 365 document called Reassessment Peer
You must be careful when submitting your digital file because your first submission attempt is deemed
final. Therefore, you cannot ask the module leader to give you a second opportunity should you
inadvertently submit an incorrect file. You can find the minimum and maximum word limits for Peer
Review below from Section 4.1. According to Northumbria University’s Late Submission of Work and
Extension Requests Policy, the module leader will penalise unauthorised late submissions.

3.2 Academic Paper

The Academic Paper aims to help you develop your academic skills in literature reviewing, critical
thinking, evaluative academic writing with integrity and accuracy in using in-text citations to underpin your
narrative theoretically.

Dr Allan Osborne | KA7064 People in Project Management Page 3 of 7

Academic Paper Assignment
When preparing to write your Academic Paper, the module leader expects you to consider the following
two theoretical stands associated with group dynamics:
1. There is a considerable body of knowledge in psychology and the social sciences called group

dynamics that examines how people work in small groups or teams; this research has been collected
over the past century and has developed into a broad base of knowledge about the operation of

2. The use of teams in the workplace has expanded rapidly during recent decades. Management
researchers and applied social scientists have studied this development to advise organisations on
how to make teams operate more efficiently and develop individual and group competencies.

Taking these strands into consideration, you should unite and contextualise critical theories associated with
team dynamics from psychology and the social sciences with critical theories related to groups, teams, and
management processes from management and organisation sciences to write an Academic Paper that
challenges the following statement:
Understanding the group dynamics within teams does not provide insight into the factors that influence
our behaviour and that of our team members. Neither does it facilitate effective team leadership to
promote team cohesion and success.

Academic Paper Submission

The module leader will give you access to the Turnitin digital submission point for the Academic Paper
once SLAS has provided the module leader with its official list of reassessment students.
You will submit a digital copy of your Academic Paper in Microsoft 365 Word format using the Microsoft
365 Word Template provided by the module leader to a Turnitin digital submission at Content >
Reassessment > Academic Paper (Reassessment). The template is available from Content >
Reassessment > Microsoft 365 Word Template. You must submit your Academic Paper anonymously.
You must be careful when submitting your digital file because your first submission attempt is deemed
final. Therefore, you cannot ask the module leader to give you a second opportunity should you
inadvertently upload the wrong file. You can find the maximum word limit for the Academic Paper below
from Section 4.2. According to Northumbria University’s Late Submission of Work and Extension
Requests Policy, the module leader will penalise unauthorised late submissions.

4 Word Limits
4.1 Peer Review

The Reassessment Peer Review Questions will direct you to answer a short series of questions based
on the MLOs, presented in Section 6 below. Each question has a minimum word count of 50.
However, there is no maximum word limit. The module leader will penalise you by awarding you 0% for
Peer Review if you do not satisfy the minimum word count for each question for each student’s draft
Academic Paper.
4.2 Academic Paper
You must declare the word count of your Academic Paper in the relevant section of the Microsoft 365
Word Template the module leader gave you. The maximum word limit for the Academic Paper is 3,000
words, excluding the Abstract, which has a separate 200-word limit. The Academic Paper word limit
includes the following elements:
? The main body of the text
? In-text citations, e.g., (Smith, 2011) or Smith (2011)
? Direct quotations from primary or secondary source materials
You can exclude the following elements when calculating the word count of your Academic Paper:
? Title
? Abstract (no more than 200 words)

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? Keywords (no more than three keywords)
? Figures
? Tables
? Reference list
You are not allowed to include the following elements when writing your Academic Paper:
? Table of contents or illustrations
? Appendices
? Bibliography
? Endnotes
? Footnotes
? Glossary of terms

5 Referencing Style

The module leader requires you to write your Academic Paper in an academically acceptable format with
integrity. Using the Harvard Cite Them Right method, you must present your bibliographic citations in the
body of your Academic Paper and reference list. Cite Them Right is freely available to Northumbria
University students at https://www.citethemrightonline.com/. You must enter your Northumbria University
online user credentials to access the online guide.

6 Module Learning Outcomes

Upon completion of the Academic Paper, you will be able to:
6.1 Knowledge and understanding:
1. Define and evaluate selected key theories and concepts associated with the main characteristics and

processes of teams, the issues facing teams, and the organisational context of teams.
2. Critically appraise selected key theories and techniques associated with the groups and teams in an

organisation, organisational structures, and management processes.
6.2 Intellectual/professional skills and abilities:
3. Empowered with the knowledge, skills, and abilities to create, participate in, and effectively lead real

and virtual project-orientated teams.
4. Critically review the literature on team dynamics, management, and organisational behaviour and

engage with what others have written through evaluative discourse.
6.3 Personal values attribute:
5. Exhibit the professional ethics characteristics of a University postgraduate student.

7 Assessment Criteria

The academic staff marking your Academic Paper will use the assessment criteria matrix (see Section 8
below) to grade your submitted work. The Module Assessment Criteria Matrix uses Northumbria
University’s postgraduate descriptor as its educational base.
When you receive your summative assessment feedback, academic staff will give you feedback using the
Triple Plus/Delta Retrospective, which includes ‘three things you did well’ and ‘three things you need to

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8 Module Assessment Criteria Matrix

9 Reassessment: First-Sit or Re-Sit
You must note the module leader cannot give unauthorised students not included in SLAS’s official list of
reassessment students access to reassessment resources. If the module leader has not notified you he will
provide you with access to the reassessment resources when you think you should have access, you should
arrange to speak with a member of the Ask4Help team.

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Suppose the Chair of the Examination Board (EB) grants you a reassessment attempt of the module,
either a First-Sit or Re-Sit. In that case, the module leader will give you access to the reassessment
resources, either Coursework or Examination (depending upon the Module Specification).
The reassessment period will typically occur after the end-of-level EB. However, the EB may grant you
an early reassessment before reaching your end-of-level stage. You can find details of when
Northumbria University’s Assessment/Reassessment Periods will be in Northumbria University’s
Academic Calendar, which you can access from its website or the Student Portal.
During the reassessment, the module leader recommends that you reflect on the feedback you received
following your First-Sit attempt to make appropriate revisions to your reassessment attempt.
When the reassessment is Coursework, the module leader will require you to revise your First-Sit attempt
submission; however, for an Examination, the module leader will require you to take another Examination
using the Bb Test tool.
The module leader will place any additional resources needed to complete your reassessment attempt in
Content > Reassessment on the Bb module once SLAS has provided the module leader with its
official list of reassessment students. You should read the Reassessment Brief in both cases to
ensure you complete all required reassessment tasks correctly. You can access the appropriate
submission points during reassessment from Content > Reassessment on the Bb module once SLAS
has provided the module leader with its official list of reassessment students.
After receiving official notification from SLAS of the reassessment students, the module leader will contact
you by Bb Message to notify you of your ability to access the reassessment resources and the
submission date(s) and time deadline(s) for the reassessment(s) for Coursework. However, if the
reassessment is an Examination, you will be notified by SLAS when and where the reassessment
Examination will take place. SLAS will publish this information in Northumbria University’s
Examination Timetable in the Student Portal.
You should note that a reassessment Examination will take place on campus. Suppose you are an international
student planning to return home briefly during the summer and would like to request that you take a
reassessment Examination overseas in your home country. In this case, refer to SLAS’s knowledge base article
(KBA) published on the Student Portal here.

Suppose you become eligible to complete a reassessment attempt but cannot do so. Subject to an
approved Personal Extenuating Circumstances (PEC) application, the EB may, by exception, allow
you to re-take the module at the next scheduled delivery. If you pass the module following a Re-Sit
attempt, you will only be awarded the pass mark for level 7 modules, i.e., 50%.

10 Guidance for Students on Policies for Assessment

Northumbria University has many policies for assessment. The Student Portal contains guidance for
current students on these policies, including relevant procedures and forms.
Current students can access the Student Portal and search for information and guidance on a range of
topics, including:
1. Assessment regulations and policies
2. Summary information for students, including how Northumbria University sets assessments, how

Northumbria University marks with fairness and how to act on your module assignment feedback
3. Managing assessments in emergency scenarios
4. Assessment Feedback and Northumbria University’s Anonymous Marking Policy
5. Examinations and conduct in learning environments
6. Late submission of work and extension requests
7. Personal Extenuating Circumstances (PECs)
8. Student appeals and complaints
9. Academic misconduct
10. Disability and unforeseen medical circumstances
11. Assessment Regulations for Taught Awards (ARTA)

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If you are a current student but do not have access to the Student Portal, you should view the
Assessment Regulations and Policies web page.

1 Key Information

1.1 Module title
1.2 Module code number
1.3 Module level and credit points
1.4 Summative reassessment component(s) and weighting(s)
1.5 Module leader
1.6 Reassessment Period
1.7 Cohort

2 Reassessment Submission and Feedback

2.1 Reassessment overview
2.2 Release date of reassessment brief
2.3 Medium used to disseminate reassessment brief
2.4 Dates and times of submissions
2.5 Return date of your unconfirmed internally moderated marks and feedback
2.6 Mechanism for return of your unconfirmed marks and feedback

3 Peer Review and Academic Paper

3.1 Peer Review

3.1.1 Peer Review Assignment
3.1.2 Peer Review Submission

3.2 Academic Paper

3.2.1 Academic Paper Assignment
3.2.2 Academic Paper Submission

4 Word Limits

4.1 Peer Review
4.2 Academic Paper

5 Referencing Style
6 Module Learning Outcomes

6.1 Knowledge and understanding:
6.2 Intellectual/professional skills and abilities:
6.3 Personal values attribute:

7 Assessment Criteria
8 Module Assessment Criteria Matrix
9 Reassessment: First-Sit or Re-Sit
10 Guidance for Students on Policies for Assessment

Union Laws Unlawful Labor Practice Paper

In the case below, an employee files a Section 8(a)1 complaint with the NLRB against his employer for firing him.The employer asserts that it has terminated the employee lawfully.After reading the facts of the case, explain what the decision should be (who should win).Also explain any remedies that are needed.Be sure to identify the legal concepts involved and use details from the case to show evidence in support of your position. Please limit your analysis to 2-3 double-spaced pages.Tip – Consider:Car Dealer’s CaseOrganizationThis company has two dealerships in Springfield, Illinois; one sells trucks, and the other sells luxury cars.Jack, the employee who was fired, began working at the truck dealership in 2002.He changed to the luxury dealership in 2008 where he worked until he was fired in 2014.People InvolvedCompensation PlanThere are three contributing elements to the pay of the salespersons: the first is a 25-percent commission of the profit derived from the sale of the vehicle, the profit being the difference between the selling price and the cost of the vehicle. The second element is based upon volume; in order to qualify for this bonus, the salesperson must sell 12 cars in a month, including, at least, 2 used cars. The final element is the Customer Satisfaction Index, which is based upon survey questionnaires sent to customers who purchased a car.Employee HandbookThe employee handbook included the following rule: (b) Courtesy: Courtesy is the responsibility of every employee. Everyone is expected to be courteous, polite and friendly to our customers, vendors and suppliers, as well as to their fellow employees. No one should be disrespectful or use profanity or any other language which injures the image or reputation of the Dealership.Facebook PostingsThe event pages are entitled: “(luxury) 2014 5 Series Soiree.” On the first page, Jack posted:“I was happy to see that (dealer) went ‘All Out’ for the most important launch of a new (luxury car) in years . . . the new 5 series. A car that will generate tens in millions of dollars in revenues for the dealer over the next few years. The small 8 oz bags of chips, and the $2.00 cookie plate from Sam’s Club, and the semi fresh apples and oranges were such a nice touch . . . but to top it all off . . . the Hot Dog Cart. Where our clients could attain an overcooked wiener and a stale bun.” Underneath were comments by Jack’s relatives and friends, followed by Jack’s responses. On the following page there is a picture of Dutch with his arm around the woman serving the hot dogs, and the following page has a picture of Dutch with a hot dog. Page 4 shows the snack table with cookies and fruit.Page 5 shows one of the sales people holding bottles of water, with a comment posted by Jack:“No, that’s not champagne or wine, it’s 8 oz. water. Pop or soda would be out of the question.”In this photo, a salesperson is seen coveting the rare vintages of water that were available for our guests. Page 6 shows the sign depicting the new luxury 5 Series car with Jack’s comment below: “This is not a food event. What ever made you realize that?” The final two pages again show the food table and Dutch holding a hot dog. The pictures of the truck accident, as well as Jack’s comments, on the Facebook page were: The caption is “This is your car: This is your car on drugs.” The first picture shows the car, the front part of which was in the pond.The salesperson with a blanket around her is sitting next to a woman, and a young boy is holding his head.Jack wrote, “This is what happens when a sales person sitting in the front passenger seat (Former Sales Person, actually) allows a 13 year old boy to get behind the wheel of a 6000 lb. truck built and designed to pretty much drive over anything. The kid drives over his father’s foot and into the pond in all about 4 seconds and destroys a $50,000 truck. OOOPS!” There are a number of comments on the first page, one of which was from an employee of the company in the warranty department, stating: “How did I miss all the fun stuff?” On the second page, under the photo of the car in the pond, Jack wrote: “I love this one . . . The kid’s pulling his hair out . . . Du, what did I do? Oh no, is Mom gonna give me a time out?” Below, there were comments from two of the company’s employees. On a separate Facebook page, one of a service advisor employed by the company, there was Jack’s picture of the car in the pond with the service advisor’s own comment: “Finally, some action at our truck store.”Sequence of EventsUnless otherwise noted, the parties essentially do not dispute these facts.Unless otherwise indicated, all dates referred to here are for 2014.Sometime between June 5 and June 9All the sales people met in Sam’s office to discuss the upcoming event.Sam told them about the event, the incentives being offered, and what was expected of them.Sam testified that someone asked about the food but he doesn’t remember what was said.He did say the sales people rolled their eyes “in amazement.”Jack testified this scenario:He told Sam, “I can’t believe we’re not doing more for this event.” Greg said the same thing and added: “This is a major launch of a new product and . . . we just don’t understand what the thought is behind it.” Sam responded: “This is not a food event.” After the meeting the sales people spoke more about it and Greg told Jack that at a competing luxury car’s dealership they served hors d’oeuvres with servers. Greg also said, “We’re the bread and butter store in the auto park and we’re going to get the hot dog cart.” As to why this was important, Jack testified: Everything in life is perception. X [ is] a luxury brand and . . . what I’ve talked about with all my co-workers was the fact that what they were going to do for this event was absolutely not up to par with the image of the brand, the ultimate driving machine, a luxury brand. And we were concerned about the fact that it would . . . affect our commissions, especially in the sense that it would affect . . . how the dealership looks and, how it’s presented . . . when somebody walks into our dealership . . . it’s a beautiful auto park . . . it’s a beautiful place . . . and if you walk in and you sit down and your waiter serves you a happy meal from McDonald’s. The two just don’t mix . . . we were very concerned about the fact . . . that it could potentially affect our bottom line.June 9The car promotion event occurred at the luxury dealer.The car being introduced was a new model in their “bread and butter” line.The event was significant enough for the car manufacturers to attend and help sell to the customer.Jack took pictures of the sales people holding hot dogs, water and Doritos and told them that he was going to post the pictures on his Facebook page. June 14At the company’s truck dealership, an accident occurred.A salesperson was showing a customer a truck and allowed the customer’s 13-year-old son to sit in the driver’s seat of it while the sales person was in the passenger seat, apparently, with the door open. The customer’s son must have stepped on the gas pedal; the truck drove down a small embankment, drove over the foot of the customer into an adjacent pond, and the salesperson was thrown into the water (but was unharmed, otherwise). Jack was told of the truck incident and could see it from the facility. He got his camera and took pictures of the truck in the pond.June 14Jack posted comments and pictures of the luxury event of June 9 as well as the truck accident of June 14 on his Facebook page. June 15The company representatives had learned of, and had been given copies of, Jack’s Facebook postings for both the event and the accident.Sam asked Jack to remove the postings, which he did.June 16At Harry’s request, Jack met with him, Pete, and Sam in a conference room at the dealership to discuss the postings.Harry tossed copies of the Facebook pages at him and said, “What were you thinking?”Jack responded that it was his Facebook page and his friends:“It’s none of your business.”Harry responded, “That’s what you’re going to claim?”Jack affirmed, “That’s exactly what I’m going to claim.”Harry again asked what he was thinking and Jack said that he wasn’t thinking anything.Harry said that they received calls from two other dealers and that he thoroughly embarrassed all management and “all of your coworkers and everybody that works at the dealership.” Pete then said, “You know, Jack, the photos at the truck dealership are one thing, but the photos at the luxury dealer, that’s a whole different ball game.” Jack responded that he understood. Harry then said that they were going to have to think about what they were going to do with him, and that they would contact him. Meanwhile, he was told to hand in the key to his desk. On the way out, Jack told Sam that there was no maliciousness on his part and Sam told him to let things settle down, and he left. After he got home, Jack called Pete and apologized for what had occurred; Pete testified that he does not recall receiving any apology from Jack. Jack later called Dick and apologized to him as well.Dick told him that he should have apologized during the meeting with Harry, Pete, and Sam. Notes of this June 16 meeting, taken by Pete, state that the meeting was to discuss: . . . several negative articles on his Facebook directly pertaining to situations which happened at the dealership.We were alerted to this action by receiving calls from other truck dealers who saw pictures/comments (negative) on the internet. Harry showed Jack copies of the postings and posed the question what was Jack thinking to do such a . . . thing to the company. (One posting was regarding the accident at truck dealer when a truck was driven into the lake and the second was surrounding our new 5 Series luxury car event.) Harry testified that at the June 16 meeting he handed Jack the postings and asked why he would do that and Jack said that it was his Facebook and he could do what he wanted. He ended the meeting by telling Jack to go home and that they would review this issue and get back to him. June 21A meeting of Dick, Bill, Harry, Sam, Pete, and Bob.Harry later testified that he saw both postings, but:“I will tell you that the thing that upset me more than anything else was the truck issues. The luxury car issue, to me, was somewhat comical, if you will . . . if it had been that, that would have been it. But, no, it was the truck issue.”“It was…making light of an extremely serious situation…somebody was injured and…doing that would just not be accepted.”Harry said the meeting “centered” on the posting of the accident, “it was 90% of the discussion.The other one was mentioned because we had that; but, that’s not why we made a decision to terminate Jack.” Sam testified that during the meeting there was discussion about the June 9 event and the accident, but:“The basis of the decision to terminate was the posting of the accident at the truck store.”June 22Jack was terminated.Jack said Harry told him, “We all took a vote and nobody wants you back…and the only thing that we ask is that you never set foot on the premises.”Jack said he told Harry that he understood and that was the end of the conversation.The memo put in Jack’s personnel file, dated June 22, from Harry, states:I told Jack [of the June 21 meeting] . . . that it was a unanimous decision to terminate his employment because he had made negative comments about the company in a public forum and had made light on the internet of a very serious incident (truck had jumped the curbing and ended up in a pond) that embarrassed the company. I told him that we could not accept his behavior and he was not to return to work. Nov. 30The unfair labor practice charge was filed. July 19, 2015Bill and Harry sent a memo to all employees stating:Because our employee handbook has not been updated since 2007, we have been in the process of updating and amending it for several months.We expect to have the finalized draft to you within the month. However in the meantime, please be aware of the following area in which a significant change is being made.If you have issues relating to these areas prior to the issuance of the new handbook, please see Harry.–Courtesy — This policy is being rescinded effective immediately.While there may be some additional changes and/or additions, the foregoing lets you know, in general terms, where a key change will be.Again, please let me know if you have any questions or concerns.July 21, 2015At the Administrative Law Judge’s hearing, the complaint was amended to include:Since at least August 28, 2007, the company has maintained the Courtesy rule in its employee handbook that contains language that makes it unlawful.The company defended that it had already taken care of that issue by rescinding the policy and notifying the employees.